Acute Myocardial Infarction

Non-O blood group tied to higher CAD, MI risk

(HealthDay)—Having non-O blood group may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction, according to a meta-analysis published in the Sept. 1 issue of The American Journal of ...

Sep 09, 2015
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Long-acting analog insulin doesn't up AMI risk in T2DM

(HealthDay)—For patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is not significantly different for long-acting insulin analogs versus other basal insulin therapies, according to a study published ...

Aug 20, 2015
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Weekend discharge not linked to increased readmission

(HealthDay)—For patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia, weekend discharge is not associated with 30-day readmission, according to a study published online June 30 ...

Jul 12, 2015
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No benefit to prolonging bivalirudin after PCI

Extending treatment with the anticoagulant bivalirudin for at least four hours after completion of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not improve outcomes compared to stopping the treatment immediately after the ...

Sep 01, 2015
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Study quells concerns about NSAID safety

In older patients with arthritis and no history of cardiovascular disease, chronic use of any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug appears safe from a cardiovascular and gastrointestinal stand-point, and regular, non-selective ...

Aug 31, 2015
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ELIXA trial shows CV safety of Lixisenatide

In patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome, the glucose-lowering medication lixisenatide did not increase or decrease the rate of cardiovascular (CV) events compared to placebo, according to results of the ...

Aug 31, 2015
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Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and ensuing oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium).

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck), shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, sweating, and anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom). Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue. Approximately one-quarter of all myocardial infarctions are "silent", that is without chest pain or other symptoms.

Among the diagnostic tests available to detect heart muscle damage are an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac MRI and various blood tests. The most often used blood markers are the creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) fraction and the troponin levels. Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin.

Most cases of STEMI (ST elevation MI) are treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). NSTEMI (non-ST elevation MI) should be managed with medication, although PCI is often performed during hospital admission. In people who have multiple blockages and who are relatively stable, or in a few emergency cases, bypass surgery may be an option, especially in diabetics.

Heart attacks are the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Important risk factors are previous cardiovascular disease, older age, tobacco smoking, high blood levels of certain lipids (triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein) and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, excessive alcohol consumption, the abuse of certain drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine), and chronic high stress levels.

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA

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