Cancer

Team compares effectiveness of four PD-L1 tests

In a recent study, a Yale Cancer Center team compared the performance of the four available PD-L1 assay tests. They found that one of the assays failed to reveal comparable levels of PD-L1, a tumor-promoting protein, while ...

Sep 23, 2016
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ASCO/ASTRO/SSO update guidelines on postmastectomy RT

(HealthDay)—New guidelines have been issued by three leading cancer organizations for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). All three groups published the guidelines online this week in their respective journals: the Journal ...

Sep 22, 2016
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Drop in use of digital rectal examination, PSA testing

(HealthDay)—Following U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations against routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, there has been a decrease in utilization of digital rectal examination and PSA ...

Sep 20, 2016
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Black gains in life expectancy

In a Viewpoint published online by JAMA, Victor R. Fuchs, Ph.D., Henry J. Kaiser Professor Emeritus, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., discusses the narrowing life-expectancy gap between the U.S. black and white populations ...

Sep 22, 2016
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Youthful DNA in old age

The DNA of young people is regulated to express the right genes at the right time. With the passing of years, the regulation of the DNA gradually gets disrupted, which is an important cause of ageing. A study of over 3,000 ...

Sep 22, 2016
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Cancer /ˈkænsər/ ( listen), known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body.

Determining what causes cancer is complex. Many things are known to increase the risk of cancer, including tobacco use, certain infections, radiation, lack of physical activity, poor diet and obesity, and environmental pollutants. These can directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause the disease. Approximately five to ten percent of cancers are entirely hereditary.

Cancer can be detected in a number of ways, including the presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging. Once a possible cancer is detected it is diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample. Cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. The chances of surviving the disease vary greatly by the type and location of the cancer and the extent of disease at the start of treatment. While cancer can affect people of all ages, and a few types of cancer are more common in children, the risk of developing cancer generally increases with age. In 2007, cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million). Rates are rising as more people live to an old age and as mass lifestyle changes occur in the developing world.

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA

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