Second-hand smoke increases risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children

December 7, 2010

Children exposed to second-hand smoke are more likely to get invasive meningococcal disease than children who are not exposed, reports a study from Chien-Chang Lee at the Harvard School of Public Health (Boston, USA) and colleagues published in this week's PLoS Medicine.

The authors also found a possible association of second-hand with invasive pneumococcal disease and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

By reviewing and analysing published studies (30 case-control and 12 cross-sectional studies, mostly conducted in high income countries with good vaccination policies), the authors used the findings of all studies that had compared the occurrence of invasive in children exposed to second-hand smoke with its occurrence in children not exposed to second-hand smoke. The authors found that exposure to second-hand smoke doubled the likelihood of invasive meningococcal disease (with a total odds ratio for second hand smoke exposure of 2.02) and although there was an increase in the risk of developing invasive pneumococcal disease and Haemophilus influenzae type b, this increase could not be distinguished from chance finding, perhaps because a relatively small number of studies were available. However, nasal carriage of N. meningitidis (which causes meningitis) and S. pneumoniae in children exposed to second-hand smoke was significantly increased compared to those who were not exposed. The effects were generally stronger in the youngest children, those below 6 years of age, who are more vulnerable.

These results suggest that by decreasing children's exposure to second-hand smoke, for example by parents stopping smoking or not smoking at home, deaths and illness caused by invasive bacterial diseases could be reduced. Such a reduction would be particularly beneficial in poor countries, where vaccination against invasive bacterial diseases is low.

The authors conclude: "Because the burden of invasive bacterial disease is highest in developing countries where second-hand smoke is increasing, there is a need for high-quality studies to confirm these results, and for interventions to reduce exposure of children to ."

More information: Citation: Lee C-C, Middaugh NA, Howie SRC, Ezzati M (2010) Association of Secondhand Smoke Exposure with Pediatric Invasive Bacterial Disease and Bacterial

Carriage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PLoS Med 7(12): e1000374. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000374

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Want to exercise more? Get yourself some competition

October 27, 2016

Imagine you're a CEO trying to get your employees to exercise. Most health incentive programs have an array of tools—pamphlets, websites, pedometers, coaching, team activities, step challenges, money—but what actually ...

Some breastfeeding advice worth ditching: US task force

October 25, 2016

A review of scientific evidence on breastfeeding out Tuesday found that some long-held advice is worth ditching, including that babies should avoid pacifiers and moms should breastfeed exclusively in the first days after ...

Sleep loss tied to changes of the gut microbiota in humans

October 25, 2016

Results from a new clinical study conducted at Uppsala University suggest that curtailing sleep alters the abundance of bacterial gut species that have previously been linked to compromised human metabolic health. The new ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.