Study evaluates relationship of urinary sodium with health outcomes
In a study conducted to examine the health outcomes related to salt intake, as gauged by the amount of sodium excreted in the urine, lower sodium excretion was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, while higher sodium excretion did not correspond with increased risk of hypertension or cardiovascular disease complications, according to a study in the May 4 issue of JAMA.
"Extrapolations from observational studies and short-term intervention trials suggest that population-wide moderation of salt intake might reduce cardiovascular events," according to background information in the article. "The assumption that lower salt intake would in the long run lower blood pressure, to our knowledge, has not yet been confirmed in longitudinal population-based studies."
Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Leuven, Belgium, and colleagues examined the incidence of death, illness and hypertension in relation to measures of urinary sodium excretion. The study included 3,681 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD) at the beginning of the study. Of these, 2,096 had normal blood pressure at baseline and 1,499 had blood pressure and sodium excretion measured at baseline and last follow-up (2005-2008).
The researches found that among 3,681 participants followed up for a median (midpoint) 7.9 years, cardiovascular deaths decreased across increasing tertiles (one of three groups) of 24-hour urinary sodium: from 50 deaths in the low (death rate, 4.1 percent), 24 deaths in the medium, (death rate, 1.9 percent) and 10 deaths in the high tertile (death rate, 0.8 percent). Analysis indicated that the risk of cardiovascular mortality was significantly elevated in the low tertile with a significant inverse association between cardiovascular mortality and tertile of sodium excretion. Baseline sodium excretion predicted neither total mortality nor fatal combined with nonfatal CVD events.
Among 2,096 participants followed up for 6.5 years, increasing tertiles of 24-hour urinary sodium were not associated with incidence of hypertension. In the entire hypertension cohort, across increasing tertiles of urinary sodium, the numbers of new cases of hypertension were 187 (27.0 percent) in the low, 190 (26.6 percent) in the medium, and 175 (25.4 percent) in the high sodium excretion group.
Among 1,499 participants followed up for 6.1 years, in multivariable-adjusted analyses, a 100-mmol increase in sodium excretion was associated with 1.71 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure but no change in diastolic BP.
"The associations between systolic pressure and sodium excretion did not translate into less morbidity or improved survival. On the contrary, low sodium excretion predicted higher cardiovascular mortality. Taken together, our current findings refute the estimates of computer models of lives saved and health care costs reduced with lower salt intake. They do also not support the current recommendations of a generalized and indiscriminate reduction of salt intake at the population level. However, they do not negate the blood pressure-lowering effects of a dietary salt reduction in hypertensive patients," the authors conclude.
More information: JAMA. 2011;3051777-1785.
Provided by JAMA and Archives Journals
- Longitudinal Study Confirms High Sodium/Low Potassium Levels Increase Cardiovascular Disease Mar 02, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Eating less salt could prevent cardiovascular disease Apr 20, 2007 | not rated yet | 0
- Cutting salt isn't the only way to reduce blood pressure Jan 26, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- High levels of urinary albumin in the normal range predict hypertension Jun 25, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- Low-sodium advice for asthmatics should be taken with a grain of salt Jul 15, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Classical and Quantum Mechanics via Lie algebras
Apr 15, 2011 I'd like to open a discussion thread for version 2 of the draft of my book ''Classical and Quantum Mechanics via Lie algebras'', available online at http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/0810.1019 , and for the...
- More from Physics Forums - Independent Research
More news stories
(HealthDay)—More than one in four of those eligible for new premium assistance tax credits under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) do not have a checking account and will not be able to receive premiums from ...
Health 1 hour ago | not rated yet | 0
After studying noise in one French Quarter neighborhood of New Orleans to determine whether or not noise levels exceeded municipal ordinances, Annette Hurley, PhD, Assistant Professor of Audiology at LSU Health Sciences Center ...
Health 2 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
Young children who missed more than half of recommended well-child visits had up to twice the risk of hospitalization compared to children who attended most of their visits, according to a study published today in the American Jo ...
Health 2 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
The individualisation of drug treatments to support patients to self-manage their conditions is a concept that sits at the heart of policy, but a recent study in BMJ Open shows that there is no concrete defini ...
Health 5 hours ago | 3 / 5 (1) | 0
Fun in the summer often means kids spending time in the water, whether at a pool, the beach, a lake or river. A pediatric safety expert at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) stresses proper training ...
Health 5 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
(HealthDay)—Comorbid conditions often accompany alopecia areata, according to a study published online May 22 in JAMA Dermatology.
46 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
Kate O'Reilly's spring allergy survival kit includes the usual stuff - nasal sprays, allergy pills and a box of tissues. This season, she's added a new weapon to her line of defense: an app on her smartphone.
26 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
Women at a particular stage in their monthly menstrual cycle may be more vulnerable to some of the psychological side-effects associated with stressful experiences, according to a study from UCL.
2 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—A new study by researchers in the US has shown that an ancient virus can be modified to help in the fight against the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV, which is the equivalent in monkeys ...
5 hours ago | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Biological processes are generally based on events at the molecular and cellular level. To understand what happens in the course of infections, diseases or normal bodily functions, scientists would need to ...
2 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
(HealthDay)—New evidence-based guidelines provide guidance on medical and surgical methods for second-trimester abortion and management of associated complications, according to a practice bulletin published ...
1 hour ago | not rated yet | 0