Elusive gene mutations found for malignant brain tumor
A discovery by scientists at Duke University Medical Center and Johns Hopkins University could increase the chances for an effective combination of drug therapy to treat the second most common type of brain tumor.
For years scientists have been looking for the primary cancer genes involved in the development of oligodendrogliomas. Scientists knew the two chromosomes that held the probable mutations, but not the particular gene information.
Now scientists at Duke and Johns Hopkins have discovered the most likely genetic mutations that researchers have been hunting for on chromosomes 1 and 19. These genes were difficult to find until the technology improved, said Hai Yan, M.D., Ph.D., Duke associate professor of pathology and co-corresponding author of the study.
"The team used whole genome sequencing technology so that no genes would be excluded, and we found to our surprise that one gene, on chromosome 19, was mutated in six out of the seven initial tumor specimens we sequenced," Yan said. "A mutation frequency of 85 percent is very high."
The study was published in the Aug. 4 ahead-of-print issue of the journal Science.
"Whenever we find genes mutated in a majority of tumors, it is likely that the pathway regulated by that gene is critical for the development and biology of the tumor," says Nickolas Papadopoulos, Ph.D., co-corresponding author and associate professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
The finding of two additional new genes involved in oligodendrogliomas increases the chances for an effective combination drug therapy for the tumor, Yan said. He envisions a combination cocktail of drugs similar to the combination-drug treatments taken by HIV patients that would target different pathways involved in cancer, and assist in reducing the chance of relapsing, increasing odds of success.
The genes they identified are tumor suppressor genes. The cancer-related pathways that involve these genes could become targets for future treatments, Yan said.
"Tumor suppressor genes like the ones we found, CIC or FUBP1, won't be targeted directly by small molecules, because the mutated gene products result in loss of function, but the pathways that these genes are involved in could be targeted," Yan said.
"Another very important feature is that the genes could be used as biomarkers to distinguish this type of cancer from other types of brain tumors."
The researchers found CIC on chromosome 19 and FUBP1 on chromosome 1 based on an initial study of seven oligodendrogliomas; they found six mutations and two mutations, respectively, in the seven tumors. Further study of 27 more of these tumors showed that there were 12 and three mutations of CIC and FUBP1, respectively. The two genes were rarely mutated in other types of cancers, indicating that they are oligodendroglioma-specific genes.
These tumors also contained a glioma (brain tumor) gene mutation identified earlier by Yan and colleagues, the IDH mutations.
Provided by Duke University Medical Center
- Newly discovered gene could be a prime target in the most lethal brain cancer Feb 18, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Altered cell metabolism has role in brain tumor development Jan 31, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Researchers identify genes tied to deadliest ovarian cancers Sep 08, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- Scientists crack genetic code for form of pancreatic cancer Jan 21, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- A new mathematical formula for cancer progression Nov 09, 2007 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Pressure-volume curve: Elastic Recoil Pressure don't make sense
May 18, 2013 From pressure-volume curve of the lung and chest wall (attached photo), I don't understand why would the elastic recoil pressure of the lung is...
If you became brain-dead, would you want them to pull the plug?
May 17, 2013 I'd want the rest of me to stay alive. Sure it's a lousy way to live but it beats being all-the-way dead. Maybe if I make it 20 years they'll...
MRI bill question
May 15, 2013 Dear PFers, The hospital gave us a $12k bill for one MRI (head with contrast). The people I talked to at the hospital tell me that they do not...
Ratio of Hydrogen of Oxygen in Dessicated Animal Protein
May 13, 2013 As an experiment, for the past few months I've been consuming at least one portion of Jell-O or unflavored Knox gelatin per day. I'm 64, in very...
Alcohol and acetaminophen
May 13, 2013 Edit: sorry for the typo in the title , can't edit I looked around on google quite a bit and it's very hard to find precise information on the...
Marie Curie's leukemia
May 13, 2013 Does anyone know what might be the cause of Marie Curie's cancer
- More from Physics Forums - Medical Sciences
More news stories
(Medical Xpress)—Scientists at the School of Medicine have shown that their previously identified therapeutic approach to fight cancer via immune cells called macrophages also prompts the disease-fighting killer T cells ...
Cancer 2 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0 |
Older prostate cancer patients with other underlying health conditions should think twice before committing to surgery or radiation therapy for their cancer, according to a multicenter study led by researchers in the UCLA ...
Cancer 13 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy has become the most commonly used type of radiation in prostate cancer, but research from the University of North Carolina suggests that the therapy may not be more effective than older, ...
Cancer 15 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
New research suggests that a compound abundant in the Mediterranean diet takes away cancer cells' "superpower" to escape death. By altering a very specific step in gene regulation, this compound essentially re-educates cancer ...
Cancer 15 hours ago | 4.8 / 5 (13) | 2 |
(HealthDay)—For young adults needing either a chest or abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT), the short-term risk of death from underlying morbidity is greater than the long-term risk of radiation-induced ...
Cancer 17 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Cardiologists have identified a trio of biomarkers that may predict which patients with heart disease have a high risk of heart attack or death in the next two years.
54 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0 |
(HealthDay)—When it comes to the care of your children's teeth, dentists aren't the only experts who can help.
4 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—We spend about a third of our life asleep, but why we need to do so remains a mystery. In a recent publication, researchers at University of Surrey and University College London suggest a new hypothesis, ...
1 hour ago | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—International researchers are studying the salt intake of Indian adults to provide vital new data to aid the development of a national salt reduction strategy.
54 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Exposure to sunshine as a small child is crucial to the development of a healthy eye according to results of long-term myopia study conducted by University of Sydney researchers.
44 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
(HealthDay)—For patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), prolonged prone positioning during mechanical ventilation is associated with significantly reduced mortality at 28 and 90 days, ...
24 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0