Researchers find molecule that prevents Type 1 diabetes in mice
Researchers at the University of Colorado School of Medicine have found a specific molecule that can prevent the development of type 1 diabetes in mice and has a similar effect on human cells from diabetic patients.
The findings, published in the latest edition of The Journal of Immunology, signal a new and promising direction in the fight against type I diabetes along with other autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and celiac disease.
Aaron Michels, MD, an assistant professor of pediatrics and medicine, working with George Eisenbarth., MD, Ph.D., executive director of the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes at the CU School of Medicine, tested a series of molecules before finding one that stopped diabetes from developing in mice bred to get the disease.
"We found that when you put specific molecules into specific structural pockets you can block the formation of diabetes," said Eisenbarth. "We are basically throwing a monkey wrench into the machinery."
The researchers were looking for small molecules capable of occupying pockets along a protein binding groove. Some of the molecules got into these pockets and inhibited the presentation of insulin to immune cells while others enhanced it.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the body's inability to manufacture insulin because its own immune system is attacking it. The incidence of the disease has doubled in each of the last two decades.
Michels and Eisenbarth found that the compound Glyphosine enhanced insulin presentation and prevented diabetes in mice genetically modified to develop type 1diabetes. It had the same effect on human cells. The mice remained disease-free as long as they received daily injections of the compound. It was not as effective on mice that already had diabetes.
The molecules used in the research were obtained with the assistance of the University of Florida College of Medicine in Gainesville.
"Our role was to screen a large chemical library to identify drug candidates for prevention of type 1 diabetes," said David Ostrov, Ph.D., associate professor of pathology, immunology and laboratory medicine at the University of Florida. "We developed a novel screening method that pinpoints very specific areas of a protein that is genetically associated with type 1 diabetes."
Using a supercomputer, Ostrov's lab ran tests on 139,735 drug candidates to see which were most likely to bind on the four critical pockets of the protein.
"Not only does this provide a new way to change specific immune responses in a manner that is beneficial for diabetes, this shows that we may be able to modify specific immune responses for other autoimmune diseases," Ostrov said. "This is also relevant to cancer and infectious diseases where it would be beneficial to modify specific immune responses rather than in a general way."
Michels said that based on the two and a half year study, it would be feasible to genetically screen individuals likely to develop type 1 diabetes and begin a therapy regimen using these compounds to prevent the onset of the disease. Right now, doctors can predict who will get type 1diabetes about 90 percent of the time.
"This technique would also apply to other autoimmune disorders like arthritis and celiac disease," Michels said. "The principals are the same."
The next step is to focus specifically on human cells to try and develop new therapies for clinical use. That could be at least five years away.
Provided by University of Colorado Denver
- Cancer and arthritis therapy may be promising treatment for diabetes Dec 18, 2007 | not rated yet | 0
- Insulin peptide may point to a solution for type 1 diabetes Jun 16, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- Immune responses spread from one protein to another in type 1 diabetes Dec 02, 2006 | not rated yet | 0
- Protein levels could signal that a child will develop diabetes Apr 25, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Early research shows dietary supplement may lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes Sep 22, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
How can there be a term called "intestinal metaplasia" of stomach
7 hours ago Hello everyone, Ok Stomach's normal epithelium is simple columnar, now in intestinal type of adenocarcinoma of stomach it undergoes "intestinal...
Pressure-volume curve: Elastic Recoil Pressure don't make sense
May 18, 2013 From pressure-volume curve of the lung and chest wall (attached photo), I don't understand why would the elastic recoil pressure of the lung is...
If you became brain-dead, would you want them to pull the plug?
May 17, 2013 I'd want the rest of me to stay alive. Sure it's a lousy way to live but it beats being all-the-way dead. Maybe if I make it 20 years they'll...
MRI bill question
May 15, 2013 Dear PFers, The hospital gave us a $12k bill for one MRI (head with contrast). The people I talked to at the hospital tell me that they do not...
Ratio of Hydrogen of Oxygen in Dessicated Animal Protein
May 13, 2013 As an experiment, for the past few months I've been consuming at least one portion of Jell-O or unflavored Knox gelatin per day. I'm 64, in very...
Alcohol and acetaminophen
May 13, 2013 Edit: sorry for the typo in the title , can't edit I looked around on google quite a bit and it's very hard to find precise information on the...
- More from Physics Forums - Medical Sciences
More news stories
Widely available in pharmacies and health stores, phosphatidylserine is a natural food supplement produced from beef, oysters, and soy. Proven to improve cognition and slow memory loss, it's a popular treatment for older ...
Medical research 1 hour ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Researchers at Emory University have identified a protein that stimulates a pair of "orphan receptors" found in the brain, solving a long-standing biological puzzle and possibly leading to future treatments for neurological ...
Medical research 2 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |
Australian scientists have charted the path of insulin action in cells in precise detail like never before. This provides a comprehensive blueprint for understanding what goes wrong in diabetes.
Medical research 2 hours ago | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine will study gender differences in how the heart uses and stores fat—its main energy source—and how changes in fat metabolism play ...
Medical research 5 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
Nearly 20 percent of kidneys that are recovered from deceased donors in the U.S. are refused for transplant due to factors ranging from scarring in small blood vessels of the kidney's filtering units to the organ going too ...
Medical research 21 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Despite spending billions of dollars on research and development, drug companies have been unable to come up with effective treatments for dementia and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Now, A. ...
33 minutes ago | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Children with autism showed significant improvement after six months of simple sensory exercises at home using everyday items such as scents, spoons and sponges, according to UC Irvine neurobiologists.
19 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0 |
An attack on glioblastoma brain tumor cells that uses a modified poliovirus is showing encouraging results in an early study to establish the proper dose level, researchers at Duke Cancer Institute report.
24 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
Overweight and obese patients are significantly more likely than their normal-weight counterparts to repeatedly switch primary care doctors, a practice that disrupts continuity of care and leads to more emergency room visits, ...
19 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke in early childhood are more likely to grow up to physically aggressive and antisocial, regardless of whether they were exposed during pregnancy or their parents have a history ...
56 minutes ago | 1 / 5 (1) | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Native peoples in regions where cameras are uncommon sometimes react with caution when their picture is taken. The fear that something must have been stolen from them to create the photo ...
2 hours ago | 3.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |