Genetic markers hope for new brain tumor treatments
Researchers at The University of Nottingham have identified three sets of genetic markers that could potentially pave the way for new diagnostic tools for a deadly type of brain tumour that mainly targets children.
The study, published in the latest edition of Lancet Oncology, was led by Professor Richard Grundy at the University's Children's Brain Tumour Research Centre and Dr Suzanne Miller, a post doctoral research fellow in the Centre.
It focuses on a rare and aggressive cancer called Central Nervous System primitive neuro-ectodermal brain tumours. Patients with CNS PNET have a very poor prognosis and current treatments, including high dose chemotherapy and cranio-spinal radiotherapy are relatively unsuccessful and have severe lifelong side-effects. This is particularly the case in very young children.
Despite the need for new and more effective treatments, little research has been done to examine the underlying causes of CNS PNET, partly due to their rarity. The Nottingham study aimed to identify molecular markers as a first step to improving the treatments and therapies available to fight the cancer.
The Nottingham team collaborated with researchers at the Hospital for Sick Kids in Toronto, Canada, to perform an International study collecting 142 CNS PNET samples from 20 institutions in nine countries.
Professor Richard Grundy said: "Following our earlier research we realised that an international effort was needed to bring sufficient numbers of cases together to make the breakthrough we needed to better understand this disease or indeed diseases identified in our study. The next step is to translate this knowledge into improving treatments."
By studying the genetics of the tumours, they discovered that instead of one cancer, the tumours have three sub-types featuring distinct genetic abnormalities and leading to different outcomes for patients.
When compared with clinical factors including age, survival and metastases (the spread of the tumours through the body), they discovered that group 1 tumours (primitive neural) were found most often in the youngest patients and had the poorest survival rates. Patients with group 3 tumours had the highest incidence of metastases at diagnosis.
Ultimately, the research has identified the two genetic markers LIN28 and OLIG2 as a promising basis for more effective tools for diagnosing and predicting outcomes for young patients with these types of brain tumours.
The research was funded by the Canadian Institute of Health Research, the Brainchild/Sick Kids Foundation and the Samantha Dickson Brain Tumour Trust.
Chief Executive of Samantha Dickson Brain Tumour Trust, Sarah Lindsell, said: "As the UK's leading brain tumour charity, and the largest dedicated funder of brain tumour research, we are delighted that our investment has led to such significant success. It is great to see that understanding of these tumours is improving this is desperately needed given the poor outcomes for children with this tumour. Samantha Dickson Brain Tumour Trust is proud to have been instrumental in this work."
Journal reference: Lancet Oncology
Provided by University of Nottingham
- Study finds biological clue in brain tumour development Mar 18, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Delays in UK child brain tumor diagnosis Aug 07, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Researchers find simple reason why some children die despite aggressive modern therapy for brain cancer Feb 15, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Children's brain tumors more diverse than previously believed May 14, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Pioneering study may open door to first targeted treatment for common childhood brain tumour Apr 16, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Pressure-volume curve: Elastic Recoil Pressure don't make sense
May 18, 2013 From pressure-volume curve of the lung and chest wall (attached photo), I don't understand why would the elastic recoil pressure of the lung is...
If you became brain-dead, would you want them to pull the plug?
May 17, 2013 I'd want the rest of me to stay alive. Sure it's a lousy way to live but it beats being all-the-way dead. Maybe if I make it 20 years they'll...
MRI bill question
May 15, 2013 Dear PFers, The hospital gave us a $12k bill for one MRI (head with contrast). The people I talked to at the hospital tell me that they do not...
Ratio of Hydrogen of Oxygen in Dessicated Animal Protein
May 13, 2013 As an experiment, for the past few months I've been consuming at least one portion of Jell-O or unflavored Knox gelatin per day. I'm 64, in very...
Alcohol and acetaminophen
May 13, 2013 Edit: sorry for the typo in the title , can't edit I looked around on google quite a bit and it's very hard to find precise information on the...
Marie Curie's leukemia
May 13, 2013 Does anyone know what might be the cause of Marie Curie's cancer
- More from Physics Forums - Medical Sciences
More news stories
The use of a smartphone application significantly improves patients' preparation for a colonoscopy, according to new research presented today at Digestive Disease Week (DDW). The preparation process, which begins days in ...
Cancer May 19, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Research presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) explores new methods for managing digestive health through diet and lifestyle.
Cancer May 19, 2013 | not rated yet | 1
A ground-breaking advance in colonoscopy technology signals the future of colorectal care, according to research presented today at Digestive Disease Week(DDW). Additional research focuses on optimizing the minimal withdrawal ...
Cancer May 18, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0
(HealthDay)—Concurrent use of two immune checkpoint antibodies—ipilimumab and nivolumab—may be effective for the treatment of advanced melanoma, according to a proof-of-principal study presented in ...
Cancer May 17, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
(HealthDay)—The risks of metastasis and death associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) are low, but significant, and risk factors for poor outcome include tumor diameter, invasion beyond ...
Cancer May 17, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have turned their view of osteoarthritis (OA) inside out. Literally. Instead of seeing the painful degenerative disease as a problem primarily of the cartilage that cushions joints, ...
13 hours ago | 4.8 / 5 (5) | 0 |
In their quest to learn more about the variability of cells between and within tissues, biomedical scientists have devised tools capable of simultaneously measuring dozens of characteristics of individual ...
13 hours ago | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin have identified a potential new risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea: asthma. Using data from the National Institutes of Health (Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)-funded Wisconsin ...
12 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
A new study looking at sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging adds to the growing body of research linking the two.
12 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
The hunt for an HIV vaccine has gobbled up $8 billion in the past decade, and the failure of the most recent efficacy trial has delivered yet another setback to 26 years of efforts.
17 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
Gourmands and foodies everywhere have long recognized ginger as a great way to add a little peppery zing to both sweet and savory dishes; now, a study from researchers at Columbia University shows purified components of the ...
12 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0