Veterinarians recommend equine vaccine for alpacas to thwart west nile virus
Colorado State University veterinarians are recommending the use of equine West Nile Virus vaccines to help prevent West Nile Virus disease in alpacas. While llamas seem to be fairly resistant to developing severe disease signs, West Nile infection in alpacas sometimes results in life threatening neurological disease (encephalitis) just as is seen in horses and humans.
Signs in alpacas include lethargy, decreased appetite, weakness, muscle tremors, head and neck tremor, stumbling, incoordination, and in severe cases, paralysis leading to recumbency. About 10 percent of alpacas showing neurologic signs may die from the disease.
“The hot and dry weather across the country has created ideal conditions for the type of mosquitoes that transmit West Nile Virus,” said Dr. Rob Callan, head of Colorado State’s livestock veterinary service at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital.
“Transmission of the virus varies from year to year and depends on a number of factors, including mosquito numbers, but it is present again this year in Colorado livestock: Four equine cases of West Nile Virus have been diagnosed in horses from Fremont, Weld, and Montrose counties in Colorado so far this season.”
West Nile Virus is carried by infected birds and is spread locally by mosquitoes that bite infected birds. Bites from infected mosquitoes can then pass the virus to humans and animals.
While there are no West Nile Virus vaccines licensed for use in llamas and alpacas, equine vaccines provide protection that may prevent or decrease the severity of disease in these animals, Callan said.
Based on the limited data available, vaccination of alpacas against West Nile Virus is recommended between 4-16 months of age with a two-dose (Merial Recombitec) or three-dose (Fort Dodge Innovator) protocol followed by a single dose booster vaccination the second year. After that, producers can consider to either continue with annual vaccination, or to direct vaccination to only their most valuable animals.
“Based on the dramatic decrease in clinical cases in alpacas since West Nile Virus was introduced in the area, it appears that following initial vaccination and booster, alpacas will retain enough protection to minimize the development of neurological disease and be re-immunized by natural infection in following years,” Callan said. “Vaccination in llamas is considered optional since disease in llamas is so rare.”
Further West Nile Virus control is directed at reducing the mosquito populations and their possible breeding areas. Recommendations include removing stagnant water sources, keeping animals inside during mosquito feeding times – typically early morning and evening - and using mosquito repellents.
Provided by Colorado State University
- New and improved test for West Nile virus in horses Aug 20, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- Mosquito sample with West Nile virus found in Oakley, Calif. Aug 24, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- CDC: West Nile virus illness continue to decline Jul 01, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- Chicago man diagnosed with West Nile virus Aug 03, 2007 | not rated yet | 0
- Hurricanes help stop West Nile virus Jan 23, 2006 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Classical and Quantum Mechanics via Lie algebras
Apr 15, 2011 I'd like to open a discussion thread for version 2 of the draft of my book ''Classical and Quantum Mechanics via Lie algebras'', available online at http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/0810.1019 , and for the...
- More from Physics Forums - Independent Research
More news stories
Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic colistin are also commonly resistant to antimicrobial substances made by the human body, according to a study in mBio, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microb ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes 2 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
(AP)—Federal investigators probing the hantavirus outbreak blamed for three deaths at Yosemite National Park recommend that design changes to tent cabins and other lodging run by private concessionaires first be reviewed ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes 8 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
A new diagnostic test for a worm infection that can lead to severe enlargement and deformities of the legs and genitals is far more sensitive than the currently used test, according to results of a field ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes 9 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |
A Saudi man who had contracted the coronavirus has died, raising the death toll in the kingdom from the SARS-like virus to 16, the health ministry announced on Monday on its Internet website.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes 10 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
A new "telerehabilitation" approach lets physical therapists assess patients with low back pain (LBP) over the Internet, with good accuracy compared with face-to-face examinations, reports a study in the May 15 issue of Sp ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes 10 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution was significantly associated with higher hyperactivity scores at age 7, according to new research from the University of Cincinnati (UC) and Cincinnati Children's Hospital ...
2 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—A research team, led by Jeremy Barr, a biology post-doctoral fellow, unveils a new immune system that protects humans and animals from infection.
8 hours ago | 4.6 / 5 (12) | 3 |
New research suggests that a compound abundant in the Mediterranean diet takes away cancer cells' "superpower" to escape death. By altering a very specific step in gene regulation, this compound essentially re-educates cancer ...
11 hours ago | 4.8 / 5 (11) | 2 |
Researchers have pinpointed a catalytic trigger for the onset of Alzheimer's disease – when the fundamental structure of a protein molecule changes to cause a chain reaction that leads to the death of neurons ...
11 hours ago | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Salamanders' immune systems are key to their remarkable ability to regrow limbs, and could also underpin their ability to regenerate spinal cords, brain tissue and even parts of their hearts, scientists have ...
11 hours ago | 4.8 / 5 (6) | 2 |
Turns out, that old "practice makes perfect" adage may be overblown. New research led by Michigan State University's Zach Hambrick finds that a copious amount of practice is not enough to explain why people ...
9 hours ago | 3.3 / 5 (10) | 0 |