Excitotoxicity and nerve cell death
Neural excitotoxicity can be involved in spinal cord injury, traumatic hearing loss and Alzheimer's. The Stressprotect project has gathered data on this often devastating phenomenon at biochemical, genomic and physiological levels.
Excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate causes nerve damage. Overactivation of glutamate receptors allows high levels of calcium ions to enter the cell which in turn activates a number of cell structure destruction routes.
The exceptional significance of excitotoxicity to neuronal degeneration renders this area an important research target. The Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) project Stressprotect focused on a particularly important pathway, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to develop new ways to prevent neurological disorders caused by excitotoxicity.
Project scientists investigated the action of D-JNKI1, a peptide that is a potent inhibitor of cell death prompted by the JNK pathway. A complete characterisation of its interaction as a drug and the effects on nerve tissue was compiled.
One big plus is that D-JNKI1 displays selective action – it is taken into neurons where it is needed. Moreover, using in vitro and in vivo excitotoxicity models, D-JNKI1 was shown to afford protective and beneficial neuroprotection. Damage was averted during ischaemia (loss of blood supply), seizures, severing of a neuronal axon, Alzheimer's and traumatic hearing loss.
Importantly, when D-JNKI1 was applied with pure oxygen at pressure several hours after an episode of cerebral ischaemia, the area of tissue death was reduced by up to 83%. After a stroke, neurological scores and behaviour showed a lasting improvement.
Success of Stressprotect is mirrored in publication of results in some five high-ranking science journals. The Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS) also presented the project's data detailing its significance to the treatment of neuronal death, central to many neurodegenerative diseases.
Provided by CORDIS
- Cell's split personality is a major discovery into neurological diseases May 07, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Scientists find way to block stress-related cell death Jun 02, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Understanding the brain's natural foil for over-excited neurons Oct 19, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Matrix fragments trigger fatal excitement Dec 29, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- Stroke's 'death signal' discovered; may aid drug development Jan 21, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Why is zone 1 in liver more prone to ischemic injury?
May 23, 2013 Hi, Is it because around central vein, there is only deoxygenated blood from the vein where as in the periphery there is hepatic artery. Also why...
How can there be villous adenoma in colon, if there are no villi there
May 22, 2013 As title suggest. Thanks :smile:
How can there be a term called "intestinal metaplasia" of stomach
May 21, 2013 Hello everyone, Ok Stomach's normal epithelium is simple columnar, now in intestinal type of adenocarcinoma of stomach it undergoes "intestinal...
Pressure-volume curve: Elastic Recoil Pressure don't make sense
May 18, 2013 From pressure-volume curve of the lung and chest wall (attached photo), I don't understand why would the elastic recoil pressure of the lung is...
If you became brain-dead, would you want them to pull the plug?
May 17, 2013 I'd want the rest of me to stay alive. Sure it's a lousy way to live but it beats being all-the-way dead. Maybe if I make it 20 years they'll...
MRI bill question
May 15, 2013 Dear PFers, The hospital gave us a $12k bill for one MRI (head with contrast). The people I talked to at the hospital tell me that they do not...
- More from Physics Forums - Medical Sciences
More news stories
By discovering the new mechanism by which estrogen suppresses lipid synthesis in the liver, UC Irvine endocrinologists have revealed a potential new approach toward treating certain liver diseases.
Medical research May 23, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Aortic arch pulse wave velocity, a measure of arterial stiffness, is a strong independent predictor of disease of the vessels that supply blood to the brain, according to a new study published in the June issue the journal ...
Medical research May 23, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Since the discovery of Prontosil in 1932, sulfonamide antibiotics have been used to combat a wide spectrum of bacterial infections, from acne to chlamydia and pneumonia. However, their side effects can include serious neurological ...
Medical research May 23, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Scientists at the National Institutes of Health report they have discovered in mouse studies that a small molecule released in the spinal cord triggers a process that is later experienced in the brain as ...
Medical research May 23, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Spanish researchers have discovered that the daily clearance of neutrophils from the body stimulates the release of hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream, according to a report published today ...
Medical research May 23, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0
(Medical Xpress)—A new study by researchers in the US has shown that an ancient virus can be modified to help in the fight against the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV, which is the equivalent in monkeys ...
8 hours ago | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Two mutations central to the development of infantile myofibromatosis (IM)—a disorder characterized by multiple tumors involving the skin, bone, and soft tissue—may provide new therapeutic targets, according to researchers ...
2 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Women at a particular stage in their monthly menstrual cycle may be more vulnerable to some of the psychological side-effects associated with stressful experiences, according to a study from UCL.
5 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Biological processes are generally based on events at the molecular and cellular level. To understand what happens in the course of infections, diseases or normal bodily functions, scientists would need to ...
5 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Regulating the distribution of power in neurons is done by a system that makes the national electric grid look simple by comparison. Each neuron has several thousand mitochondria confined ...
23 hours ago | 4.9 / 5 (9) | 0 |
Talking on a hands-free device while behind the wheel can lead to a sharp increase in errors that could imperil other drivers on the road, according to new research from the University of Alberta.
2 hours ago | not rated yet | 0