Prenatal maternal smoking associated with increased risk of adolescent obesity
Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking appears associated with an increased risk for adolescent obesity, and is possibly related to subtle structural variations in the brain that create a preference for eating fatty foods, according to a report published Online First by Archives of General Psychiatry.
"Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are not known," the authors write as background information. "Preference for fatty foods, regulated in part by the brain reward system, may contribute to the development of obesity."
Amirreza Haghighi, M.D., of the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, and colleagues, studied 378 adolescents age 13 to 19 years who were recruited through high schools in one region of Quebec, Canada, as part of the ongoing Saguenay Youth Study. Participants were grouped as exposed to maternal smoking (n=180) or nonexposed to maternal smoking (n=198) and participants in each group were matched at recruitment by maternal education and participant's school attendance to minimize confounding influence of socioeconomic status (SES), and did not differ by sex, age, puberty stage or height.
The authors defined exposed as having a mother who smoked more than one cigarette a day during the second trimester of pregnancy, and nonexposed as having a mother who did not smoke one year before (and throughout) the pregnancy.
Exposed versus nonexposed participants weighed less at birth and were breastfed for shorter periods of time. At the time of analysis, exposed participants had a marginally higher body weight and BMI, and a significantly higher total body fat compared with nonexposed participants. These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, and height (when appropriate), and were still significant when adjusting for additional variables frequently associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (i.e., lower birth weight, shorter duration [or lack of] breastfeeding, and lower SES).
Exposed versus nonexposed participants also exhibited a significantly lower volume of the amygdala (part of the brain that plays a role in processing emotions and storing memories), and the authors found that, consistent with its possible role in limiting fat intake, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake.
"Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking may promote obesity by enhancing dietary preference for fat, and this effect may be mediated in part through subtle structural variations in the amygdala," the authors conclude.
More information: Arch Gen Psychiatry. Published online September 3, 2012. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.1101
Journal reference: JAMA Psychiatry
Provided by JAMA and Archives Journals
- Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of wheeze and asthma in preschool children Aug 17, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Expectant moms who smoke could cause abdominal obesity in teens Apr 27, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- In preemies, maternal smoking tied to necrotizing enterocolitis Jun 11, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, early childhood more likely to smoke as adults May 19, 2009 | not rated yet | 0
- Smoking during pregnancy lowers levels of 'good' HDL cholesterol in children Jun 22, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
understanding the dipole model for Rayleigh scattering
1 hour ago Hello. I am currently studying scattering theory in detail for my BSc thesis, and I'm starting with Rayleigh scattering. I'm following Scattering...
question on coriolis effect with drag force
7 hours ago I really need help with this question. A small floating object initially moves with velocity v on the surface of a liquid at latitude λ. The...
Question of reflection and transmission of TEM wave in normal incidenc
12 hours ago Suppose TEM wave in +z normal to a boundary on xy plane at z=0. We know *E* & *H* are tangential to the boundary. Let ##\vec E_i=\hat x E##, be the...
the rudyak-krasnolutski effective potencial
13 hours ago Hi ... anyone now how to calculate or the formula of the rudyak-krasnolutski EFFECTIVE potencial ? the effective potencial includes the angular...
Normal force for a lever model
14 hours ago My model is a lever on a table top. One arm is horizontal on the table, while the other arm is raised at an angle alpha. I'm assuming the weight of...
gravity is std. therefore can we rate a 'mass at height' by watts?
20 hours ago For example.... wind turbines are primarily listed by their wattage (1.5MW etc.) Presumably their output is varied according to rotational speed, so...
- More from Physics Forums - Classical Physics
More news stories
Children living in households where the parents are married are less likely to be obese, according to new research from Rice University and the University of Houston.
Overweight and Obesity May 22, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
In the long run, encouraging a baby to finish the last ounce in their bottle might be doing more harm than good.
Overweight and Obesity May 22, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Research presented today shows that high-fructose corn syrup can cause behavioural reactions in rats similar to those produced by drugs of abuse such as cocaine. These results, presented by addiction expert Francesco Leri, ...
Overweight and Obesity May 22, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0
As many as 35 percent of Mexican young adults may have a genetic predisposition for obesity, said a University of Illinois scientist who conducted a study at the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosί.
Overweight and Obesity May 21, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Overweight and obese patients are significantly more likely than their normal-weight counterparts to repeatedly switch primary care doctors, a practice that disrupts continuity of care and leads to more emergency room visits, ...
Overweight and Obesity May 21, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
The British Menopause Society and Women's Health Concern have today released updated guidelines on Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) to provide clarity around the role of HRT, the benefits and the risks. The new guidelines ...
47 minutes ago | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Regulating the distribution of power in neurons is done by a system that makes the national electric grid look simple by comparison. Each neuron has several thousand mitochondria confined ...
11 hours ago | 4.8 / 5 (6) | 0 |
A brief visual task can predict IQ, according to a new study. This surprisingly simple exercise measures the brain's unconscious ability to filter out visual movement. The study shows that individuals whose ...
17 hours ago | 4.5 / 5 (10) | 1 |
Teams of highly respected Alzheimer's researchers failed to replicate what appeared to be breakthrough results for the treatment of this brain disease when they were published last year in the journal Science.
15 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 2 |
Scientists at the National Institutes of Health report they have discovered in mouse studies that a small molecule released in the spinal cord triggers a process that is later experienced in the brain as ...
15 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Little is known about why asthma develops, how it constricts the airway or why response to treatments varies between patients. Now, a team of researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College, Columbia University Medical Center ...
15 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |