Brain mapping shows auto experts recognize cars like people recognize faces

Brain diagram. Credit: dwp.gov.uk

When people – and monkeys – look at faces, a special part of their brain that is about the size of a blueberry "lights up." Now, the most detailed brain-mapping study of the area yet conducted has confirmed that it isn't limited to processing faces, as some experts have maintained, but instead serves as a general center of expertise for visual recognition. Neuroscientists previously established that this region, which is called the fusiform face area (FFA) and is located in the temporal lobe, is responsible for a particularly effective form of visual recognition. But there has been an ongoing debate about whether this area is hard-wired to recognize faces because of their importance to us or if it is a more general mechanism that allows us to rapidly recognize objects that we work with extensively.

In the new study published this week in the online early edition of the , a team of Vanderbilt researchers report that they have recorded the activity in the FFAs of a group of automobile aficionados at extremely high resolution using one the most powerful available for human use and found no evidence that there is a special area devoted exclusively to facial recognition. Instead, they found that the FFA of the auto experts was filled with small, interspersed patches that respond strongly to photos of faces and autos both.

"We can't say that the same groups of neurons process both and objects of expertise, but we have now mapped the area in enough detail to rule out the possibility of an area exclusively devoted to ," said Rankin McGugin, who conducted this research as part of her doctoral dissertation.

According to Isabel Gauthier, the David K. Wilson Chair of Psychology, who directed the study, the demonstration that the FFA can support expertise for other categories may help scientists improve treatments for people who have difficulty recognizing faces, like individuals with autism. In addition, identifying the neural basis of individual differences in learning visual skills is an important step toward mapping the brain chemistry involved in learning may eventually lead to the development of drugs that make it easier for individuals to acquire different kinds of visual expertise.

For most objects, research has shown that people use a piecemeal identification scheme that focuses on parts of the object. By contrast, experts, for faces or for cars, use a more holistic approach that is extremely fast and improves their performance in recognition tasks.

The scientists point out that visual expertise may be more the norm than the exception: "It helps the doctor reading X-rays, the judge looking at show dogs, the person learning to identify birds or to play chess; it even helped us when we learned brain anatomy!" Gauthier said.

Gauthier and her colleagues have further found that people who are better at learning to recognize one subject should also be better at learning another. Recent work by her group found that those who did a better job at identifying objects in which they were most interested were also better at identifying faces.

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Tausch
1 / 5 (1) Oct 01, 2012
What words (a thousand) are to pictures...

The 'pictures' for experts are the details.
Sometimes only one detail is enough - to make or break a case.
SteveL
5 / 5 (2) Oct 01, 2012
Gotta love the syntax in that title. Sure wouldn't want to confuse auto experts with people.
Jadxia
1 / 5 (1) Oct 01, 2012
This whole study is garbage. It was already known that prosopagnosics had trouble recognizing both faces and cars. Establishing that an auto enthusiast uses this section of the brain to recognize cars does not lead to the conclusion that also relates to EVERY object of expertise. The original supposition was that cars, and certain other objects, registered enough like faces that that center interpreted them as another kind of 'face'.

The only way to solidly prove/disprove that this area works for all 'objects of expertise' is to perform the same study using an object that has not been known to have any facial component and is not commonly hard to identify by those who are faceblind, like lamps or tablecloths. And you would have to take those same study participants and see whether a discrepancy was noted in their small-scale spatial perceptions, which would go further to prove if the fault is a matter of being unable to visually memorize distances, or a pattern recognition error.
JVK
1 / 5 (1) Oct 02, 2012
In the 2012 10-page reiteration of my model, food preferences and sexual preferences are essential to species survival and are nutrient chemical-dependent and pheromone controlled. Now that we know there is no innate visual recognition of faces in the FFA, we can be more sure that the sex specific responses to acoustic, tactile, and visual stimuli that play a role in sexual attraction in invertebrate and vertebrate species are not innate. They are learned via association with olfactory/pheromonal input. How can we know that for sure? Because there is no model for adaptive evolution that suggests the FFA might have evolved in humans via the ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction that is required. And there is a model for that: Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338. http://dx.doi.org...i0.17338