Researchers harness the immune system to improve stem cell transplant outcomes
A novel therapy in the early stages of development at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center shows promise in providing lasting protection against the progression of multiple myeloma following a stem cell transplant by making the cancer cells easier targets for the immune system.
Outlined in the British Journal of Hematology, the Phase II clinical trial was led by Amir Toor, M.D., hematologist-oncologist in the Bone Marrow Transplant Program and research member of the Developmental Therapeutics program at VCU Massey Cancer Center. The multi-phased therapy first treats patients with a combination of the drugs azacitidine and lenalidomide. Azacitidine forces the cancer cells to express proteins called cancer testis antigens (CTA) that immune system cells called T-cell lymphocytes recognize as foreign. The lenalidomide then boosts the production of T-cell lymphocytes. Using a process called autologous lymphocyte infusion (ALI), the T-cell lymphocytes are then extracted from the patient and given back to them after they undergo a stem cell transplant to restore the stem cells' normal function. Now able to recognize the cancer cells as foreign, the T-cell lymphocytes can potentially protect against a recurrence of multiple myeloma following the stem cell transplant.
"Every cell in the body expresses proteins on their surface that immune system cells scan like a barcode in order to determine whether the cells are normal or if they are foreign. Because multiple myeloma cells are spawned from bone marrow, immune system cells cannot distinguish them from normal healthy cells," says Toor. "Azacitidine essentially changes the barcode on the multiple myeloma cells, causing the immune system cells to attack them," says Toor.
This video is not supported by your browser at this time.
Dr. Amir Toor from Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center's Bone Marrow Transplant program explains a recent clinical trial evaluating a new therapy for multiple myeloma that harnesses the power of patients' immune systems to provide lasting protection against the disease. Credit: VCU Massey Cancer CenterThe goal of the trial was to determine whether it was safe, and even possible, to administer the two drugs in combination with an ALI. In total, 14 patients successfully completed the investigational drug therapy. Thirteen of the participants successfully completed the investigational therapy and underwent a stem cell transplant. Four patients had a complete response, meaning no trace of multiple myeloma was detected, and five patients had a very good partial response in which the level of abnormal proteins in their blood decreased by 90 percent.
In order to determine whether the azacitidine caused an increased expression of CTA in the multiple myeloma cells, Toor collaborated with Masoud Manjili, D.V.M., Ph.D., assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at VCU Massey, to conduct laboratory analyses on bone marrow biopsies taken from trial participants before and after treatments. Each patient tested showed an over-expression of multiple CTA, indicating the treatment was successful at forcing the cancer cells to produce these "targets" for the immune system.
"We designed this therapy in a way that could be replicated, fairly inexpensively, at any facility equipped to perform a stem cell transplant," says Toor. "We plan to continue to explore the possibilities of immunotherapies in multiple myeloma patients in search for more effective therapies for this very hard-to-treat disease."
More information: onlinelibrary.wile… 5.x/abstract
Journal reference: British Journal of Hematology
Provided by Virginia Commonwealth University
- Lenalidomide prolongs disease control for multiple myeloma patients after stem cell transplant May 16, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Study shows benefit of new maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma May 11, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Antibodies from rabbits improve survival and relapse outcomes of leukemia and myelodysplasia Jul 06, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Stem cells make bone marrow cancer resistant to treatment Jan 11, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- Researchers find way to help donor adult blood stem cells overcome transplant rejection Aug 04, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Solvability of a circuit
2 hours ago Let's say I have a circuit consisting only of a finite number of batteries and resistors, all ideal. Given an arbitrary shape of this circuit, will I...
Question about perception of colors around light sources
6 hours ago When I look at a distant light source (like car headlights, or street lamp lights) I notice colors of the visible spectrum (as separated (as in after...
Does a charged particle rotate when traveling through a static Bf?
7 hours ago I have been looking at mass spectrometers, in particular the interactions between the Bf ind of a charged particle in motion in a static Bf of the...
Find a link between physics and assignment problems
9 hours ago Hi ! I've been working about assignments problems and how to solve them. I will have to do a presentation about it in few weeks. However, I'll...
Light as a source of electricity
9 hours ago Hello Dear Fellows! We all know that light is an electromagnetic wave and also we know that an antenna receives EM waves and...
A question about the energy stored in a capacitor.
9 hours ago If we imagine a simple circuit with a battery and a capacitor with negligible internal resistance, the capacitor is charged up to a point where the...
- More from Physics Forums - Classical Physics
More news stories
Raising hopes for cell-based therapies, UC San Francisco researchers have created the first functioning human thymus tissue from embryonic stem cells in the laboratory. The researchers showed that, in mice, ...
Immunology May 16, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Researchers from CNRS, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier and IRD have elucidated new molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to visceral leishmaniasis, a serious parasitic infection. They have shown that dectin-1 ...
Immunology May 16, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Women's immune systems age more slowly than men's, suggests research in BioMed Central's open access journal Immunity & Ageing. The slower decline in a woman's immune system may contribute to women living longer than men. ...
Immunology May 14, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Newly described type of immune cell and T cells share similar path to maturity, according to new study
(Medical Xpress)—Labs around the world, and a core group at Penn, have been studying recently described populations of immune cells called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Some researchers liken them to foot soldiers that ...
Immunology May 14, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Cytokines are molecules produced by immune cells that induce the migration of other cells to sites of infection or injury, promote the production of anti-microbial agents, and signal the production of inflammatory ...
Immunology May 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin have identified a potential new risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea: asthma. Using data from the National Institutes of Health (Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)-funded Wisconsin ...
8 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |
In their quest to learn more about the variability of cells between and within tissues, biomedical scientists have devised tools capable of simultaneously measuring dozens of characteristics of individual ...
9 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have turned their view of osteoarthritis (OA) inside out. Literally. Instead of seeing the painful degenerative disease as a problem primarily of the cartilage that cushions joints, ...
9 hours ago | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
A new study looking at sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging adds to the growing body of research linking the two.
8 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
The hunt for an HIV vaccine has gobbled up $8 billion in the past decade, and the failure of the most recent efficacy trial has delivered yet another setback to 26 years of efforts.
13 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
Gourmands and foodies everywhere have long recognized ginger as a great way to add a little peppery zing to both sweet and savory dishes; now, a study from researchers at Columbia University shows purified components of the ...
8 hours ago | not rated yet | 0