Fetal alcohol exposure affects brain structure in children

Children exposed to alcohol during fetal development exhibit changes in brain structure and metabolism that are visible using various imaging techniques, according to a new study being presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Alcohol use by expectant mothers can lead to problems with the mental and physical development of their children—a condition known as . Research suggests an incidence of 0.2 to 1.5 per 1,000 , according to the . Costs for care of individuals affected by fetal alcohol syndrome in the U.S. have been estimated at $4 billion annually.

Advancements in (MRI) are affording unprecedented insights into the effects of alcohol on the central nervous systems of children whose mothers drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Recently, researchers in Poland used three different MRI techniques to better define these effects.

The study group included 200 children who were exposed to alcohol during their fetal stage and 30 children whose mothers did not drink while pregnant or during lactation. Researchers used MRI to evaluate the size and shape of the corpus callosum, the bundle of that forms the major communication link between the right and left halves of the brain, in the two groups. is the major cause of impaired development or complete absence of the corpus callosum.

The MRI results showed statistically significant thinning of the corpus callosum in the children exposed to alcohol compared with the other group.

"These changes are strongly associated with psychological problems in children," said Andrzej Urbanik, M.D., chair of the Department of Radiology at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland.

Dr. Urbanik and colleagues also used diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to study six areas of the central nervous system in the children. DWI maps the diffusion process of water and can be a more sensitive means than traditional MRI for detecting tissue abnormalities.

Children in the alcohol group exhibited statistically significant increases in diffusion on DWI compared with the other children.

"The increase of diffusion indicates neurological disorders or damage to the brain tissue," Dr. Urbanik said.

To noninvasively study metabolism in the brains of the children, the researchers used proton (hydrogen) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS), a common adjunct to structural MRI studies. HMRS results showed a complex collection of metabolic changes.

"In individual cases, we found a high degree of metabolic changes that were specific for particular locations within the brain," Dr. Urbanik said.

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RichMurray
not rated yet Nov 26, 2012
Methanol from common sources [aspartame, cigarette smoke, dark wines and liquors, fruits juices vegetables preserved wet at room temperature in sealed cans jars plastics, and more] is made by the ADH1 enzyme into highly reactive acidic hydrated formaldehyde inside cells in 19 specific tissues, including the fetal brain -- the breakthrough paradigm by Prof. Woodrow C. Monte, Food Science and Nutrition, Arizona State University, retired 2004, backed by 745 free online full text medical resesearch references
WhileScienceSleeps dot com.

These many potent co-factors must be carefully considered in studies that are finally capable of assessing subtle harm in the brain and other tissues that is "perivascular", caused by slow diffusion of toxic formaldehyde from ADH1, localized in the inner layer of brain blood vessels within the blood-brain barrier, the loci of the first lesions of Alzheimer's and of multiple sclerosis - also birth defects spina bifida and autism.