Findings on overeating may aid in the fight against obesity when metabolic and psychological treatments fail
Test subjects underwent MRI scans after ingesting their favorite high-calorie beverages.
(Medical Xpress)—A similar, insidious craving plagues all addicts, no matter the substance of choice. A new study published in NeuroImage from Center for BrainHealth scientists Dr. Francesca Filbey, assistant professor in the School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, and doctoral student Samuel DeWitt has found that for binge-eaters, as with all addiction sufferers, the compulsion to overeat is rooted in the brain's reward center.
In the last 20 years, the incidence of obesity has doubled in the U.S. and many European countries, and related chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes are on the rise. One-third of Americans are obese, and more than two-thirds are overweight. Obesity has become a leading health problem in the United States, and its challenging personal and economic ramifications fuel the desire to quell the pandemic.
Until now research and treatment focusing on physiological factors, such as metabolic disorders, and psychological causes, such as eating when depressed or bored, have failed to solve the problem. However, recent research from Center for BrainHealth's lead addiction scientist, Dr. Filbey, seeks to further understand how addiction manifests in the brain and drive innovative treatment solutions.
"The reason I'm interested in studying the brain's reward system in response to food is that current treatments for obesity often do not work. Only 5 percent of those who seek interventions such as diet and exercise are successful in maintaining a healthy weight. Even in the case of gastric bypass, many still experience dependence symptoms like extreme desire to overeat and the associated feelings of guilt after surgery," Filbey said.
Cross-sections of the scans show which parts of the brain reacted to the drinks."For someone with addiction, they are constantly bombarded by temptation, which is triggered by cues. For someone with an alcohol addiction, a cue might be driving down the road and seeing a bar or just seeing a wine glass. For someone who has problems with food, it might be the image of a milkshake or the smell of popcorn. Constant cues or triggers are what often makes it very difficult to abstain from substances," Filbey said.
Filbey and her team examined 26 obese individuals who exhibited binge-eating symptoms without purging behaviors. Obese is defined as having a body mass index above 30. Binge-eating symptoms were measured using a questionnaire called the Binge Eating Scale. All participants had moderate to severe binge eating behavior.
Participants were asked to divulge their favorite high-calorie beverages and complete self-assessments about their eating behavior. Using functional MRI technology, researchers then observed each participant's brain while the chosen, high-calorie beverage was piped into the participant's mouth.
As researchers suspected, the brain showed heightened activity in the reward, motivation, and memory areas of the brain. The more severe the binge-eating symptoms exhibited by the participant, the greater the activity in the brain. The results demonstrate similarities between brain disorders of the reward system commonly seen in other forms of addiction and binge eating.
Despite the cognitive connection between addiction and obesity, the term "food addiction" is up for debate in the field. "It is not a concept people have been open to in the past. Right now, it does not exist as a recognized disorder." However, Filbey concedes, "The National Institute on Drug Abuse has begun supporting research into food addiction, and although previously not considered a legitimate diagnosis, the next Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders will list binge eating as a disorder."
This study provides evidence that the solution to weight loss for some goes beyond preaching behavior changes such as "just say no" to another milkshake, and urges us to better understand brain-based issues that lead to obesity. Further research into binge eating, addiction, and the brain's reward system will help identify risk factors for weight problems and provide the basis for treatments helping those who struggle with "food addiction".
Journal reference: NeuroImage
Provided by University of Texas at Dallas
- Binge eaters' dopamine levels spike at sight, smell of food Feb 28, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Evidence for 'food addiction' in humans Jul 12, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Our brains on food: From anorexia to obesity and everything in between Apr 03, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- New brain research suggests eating disorders impact brain function Jul 11, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Binge eating may lead to addiction-like behaviors Apr 24, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Why is zone 1 in liver more prone to ischemic injury?
May 23, 2013 Hi, Is it because around central vein, there is only deoxygenated blood from the vein where as in the periphery there is hepatic artery. Also why...
How can there be villous adenoma in colon, if there are no villi there
May 22, 2013 As title suggest. Thanks :smile:
How can there be a term called "intestinal metaplasia" of stomach
May 21, 2013 Hello everyone, Ok Stomach's normal epithelium is simple columnar, now in intestinal type of adenocarcinoma of stomach it undergoes "intestinal...
Pressure-volume curve: Elastic Recoil Pressure don't make sense
May 18, 2013 From pressure-volume curve of the lung and chest wall (attached photo), I don't understand why would the elastic recoil pressure of the lung is...
If you became brain-dead, would you want them to pull the plug?
May 17, 2013 I'd want the rest of me to stay alive. Sure it's a lousy way to live but it beats being all-the-way dead. Maybe if I make it 20 years they'll...
MRI bill question
May 15, 2013 Dear PFers, The hospital gave us a $12k bill for one MRI (head with contrast). The people I talked to at the hospital tell me that they do not...
- More from Physics Forums - Medical Sciences
More news stories
New research presented today shows that formation of new neurons in the hippocampus - a brain region known for its importance in learning and remembering - could cause forgetting of old memories by causing a reorganization ...
Neuroscience May 24, 2013 | 4 / 5 (4) | 0
How can healthy people who hear voices help schizophrenics? Finding the answer for this is at the centre of research conducted at the University of Bergen.
Neuroscience May 24, 2013 | 4 / 5 (2) | 2
One of the major frontiers of modern science is a comprehensive understanding of the human brain and its functions to guide the development of new technologies in information and communication. In a major announcement for ...
Neuroscience May 24, 2013 | 3.7 / 5 (3) | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Regulating the distribution of power in neurons is done by a system that makes the national electric grid look simple by comparison. Each neuron has several thousand mitochondria confined ...
Neuroscience May 23, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (10) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—The human brain is able to identify individuals' voices by comparing them against an internal 'average voice' prototype, according to neuroscientists.
Neuroscience May 23, 2013 | 3.7 / 5 (3) | 3 |
Coenzyme Q10 decreases all cause mortality by half, according to the results of a multicentre randomised double blind trial presented today at Heart Failure 2013 congress. It is the first drug to improve heart failure mortality ...
15 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 5
(HealthDay)—Animals make great companions for senior citizens, but elderly people who always drive with a pet in the car are far more likely to crash than those who never drive with a pet, researchers have ...
7 hours ago | not rated yet | 1
Heart failure accelerates the aging process and brings on early andropausal syndrome (AS), according to research presented today at the Heart Failure Congress 2013. AS, also referred to as male 'menopause', was four times ...
15 hours ago | not rated yet | 1
Mortality and length of stay are highest in heart failure patients admitted in January, on Friday, and overnight, according to research presented today at the Heart Failure Congress 2013. The analysis of nearly 1 million ...
15 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
(AP)—Department of Justice lawyers have again asked a federal appeals court in New York to delay lifting age restrictions and prescription requirements on an emergency contraceptive popularly known as the morning-after ...
15 hours ago | not rated yet | 0