Scientists identify inhibitor of myelin formation in the central nervous system

November 20, 2012

Scientists at the Mainz University Medical Center have discovered another molecule that plays an important role in regulating myelin formation in the central nervous system. Myelin promotes the conduction of nerve cell impulses by forming a sheath around their projections, the so-called axons, at specific locations – acting like the plastic insulation around a power cord. The research team, led by Dr. Robin White of the Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, recently published their findings in the prestigious journal EMBO Reports.

Complex organisms have evolved a technique known as saltatory conduction of impulses to enable nerve cells to transmit information over large distances more efficiently. This is possible because the specialized nerve cell axonal projections involved in conducting impulses are coated at specific intervals with myelin, which acts as an insulating layer. In the , myelin develops when oligodendrocytes, which are a type of brain cell, repeatedly wrap their around the of nerve cells forming a compact stack of cell membranes, a so-called myelin sheath. A not only has a high lipid content but also contains two main proteins, the synthesis of which needs to be carefully regulated.

The current study analyzed the synthesis of myelin basic protein (MBP), a substance which is essential for the formation and stabilization of myelin membranes. In common with all proteins, MBP is generated in a two-stage process originating from basic in the form of DNA. First, DNA is converted to mRNA, which, in turn, serves as a template for the actual synthesis of MBP. During myelin formation, the synthesis of MBP in oligodendrocytes is suppressed until distinct signals from initiate myelination at specific "production sites". To date, the mechanisms involved in the suppression of MBP synthesis over relatively long periods of time have not been understood. This is where the current work of the Mainz scientists comes in, as they were able to identify a molecule that is responsible for the suppression of MBP synthesis.

"This molecule, called sncRNA715, binds to MBP mRNA, thus preventing MBP synthesis," explains Dr. Robin White. "Our research findings show that levels of sncRNA715 and MBP inversely correlate during myelin formation and that it is possible to influence the extent of MBP production in oligodendrocytes by artificially modifying levels of sncRNA715. This indicates that the recently discovered molecule is a significant factor in the regulation of MBP synthesis."

Understanding the molecular basis for myelin formation is essential with regard to various neurological illnesses that involve a loss of the protective myelin layer. For example, it is still unclear why lose their ability to repair the damage to myelin in the progress of multiple sclerosis (MS). "Interestingly, in collaboration with our Dutch colleagues, we have been able to identify a correlation between levels of sncRNA715 and MBP in the brain tissue of MS patients," Robin White continues. "In contrast with unaffected areas of the brain in which the myelin structure appears normal, there are higher levels of sncRNA715 in affected areas in which myelin formation is impaired. Our findings may help to provide a molecular explanation for myelination failures in illnesses such as multiple sclerosis."

Explore further: New imaging technique could promote early detection of multiple sclerosis

More information: Bauer, Nina M. et al., Myelin Basic Protein synthesis is regulated by small non-coding RNA 715, EMBO Reports 2012:13, 827-834
doi:10.1038/embor.2012.97

Related Stories

Human ES cells progress slowly in myelin's direction

April 9, 2009

Scientists from the University of Wisconsin, USA, report in the journal Development the successful generation from human embryonic stem cells of a type of cell that can make myelin, a finding that opens up new possibilities ...

MS research: Myelin influences how brain cells send signals

July 21, 2011

The development of a new cell-culture system that mimics how specific nerve cell fibers in the brain become coated with protective myelin opens up new avenues of research about multiple sclerosis. Initial findings suggest ...

Brain electrical activity spurs insulation of brain's wiring

August 11, 2011

(Medical Xpress) -- Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered in mice a molecular trigger that initiates myelination, the process by which brain cell networks are reinforced with an insulating material ...

Multiple sclerosis: Damaged myelin not the trigger

February 27, 2012

Damaged myelin in the brain and spinal cord does not cause the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS), neuroimmunologists from the University of Zurich have now demonstrated in collaboration with researchers from Berlin, ...

Recommended for you

Basic research fuels advanced discovery

August 26, 2016

Clinical trials and translational medicine have certainly given people hope and rapid pathways to cures for some of mankind's most troublesome diseases, but now is not the time to overlook the power of basic research, says ...

New method creates endless supply of kidney precursor cells

August 25, 2016

Salk Institute scientists have discovered the holy grail of endless youthfulness—at least when it comes to one type of human kidney precursor cell. Previous attempts to maintain cultures of the so-called nephron progenitor ...

New avenue for understanding cause of common diseases

August 25, 2016

A ground-breaking Auckland study could lead to discoveries about many common diseases such as diabetes, cancer and dementia. The new finding could also illuminate the broader role of the enigmatic mitochondria in human development.

Strict diet combats rare progeria aging disorders

August 25, 2016

Mice with a severe aging disease live three times longer if they eat thirty percent less. Moreover, they age much healthier than mice that eat as much as they want. These are findings of a joint study being published today ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.