A key gene for brain development
(Medical Xpress)—Neurobiologists at the Research institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna have discovered one of the key genes required to make a brain. Mutations in this gene, called TUBB5, cause neurodevelopmental disease in children.
About one in ten thousand babies is born with an abnormally small head. The cause for this disorder – which is known as microcephaly – is a defect in the develoment of the embryonic brain. Children with microcephaly are severely retarded and their life expectancy is low. Certain cases of autism and schizophrenia are also associated with the dysregulation of brain size.
The causes underlying impaired brain development can be environmental stress (such as alcohol abuse or radiation) or viral infections (such as rubella) during pregnancy. In many cases, however, a mutant gene causes the problem.
David Keays, a group leader at the IMP, has now found a new gene which is responsible for Microcephaly. Together with his PhD-student Martin Breuss, he was able to identify TUBB5 as the culprit. The gene is responsible for making tubulins, the building blocks of the cell's internal skeleton. Whenever a cell moves or divides, it relies on guidance from this internal structure, acting like a scaffold.
The IMP-researchers, together with collaborators at Monash University (Victoria, Australia), were able to interfere with the function of the TUBB5 in the brains of unborn mice. This led to massive disturbances in the stem cell population and impaired the migration of nerve cells. Both, the generation of large numbers of neurons from the stem cell reservoir and their correct positioning in the cortex, are essential for the development of the mammalian brain.
To determine whether the findings are also relevant in humans, David Keays collaborates with clinicians from the Paris-Sorbonne University. The French team led by Jamel Chelly, examined 120 patients with pathological brain structures and severe disabilities. Three of the children were found to have a mutated TUBB5-gene.
This information will prove vital to doctors treating children with brain disease. It will allow the development of new genetic tests which will form the basis of genetic counseling, helping parents plan for the future. By understanding how different genes cause brain disorders, it is hoped that one day scientists will be able to create new drugs and therapies to treat them.
The new findings by the IMP-researchers are published in the current issue of the journal "Cell Reports". For David Keays, understanding the function of TUBB5 is the key to understanding brain development. "Our project shows how research in the lab can help improve lives in the clinic", he adds.
The paper "Mutations in the b-tubulin Gene TUBB5 Cause Microcephaly with Structural Brain Abnormalities" is published on December 13, 2012, in the online-Journal Cell Reports.
Journal reference: Cell Reports
Provided by Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
- Gene flaw causes small brain - scientists Oct 03, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- Mutations in single gene may have shaped human cerebral cortex Apr 28, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Researchers discover the cause of an inherited form of epilepsy Jun 21, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Discovery of 'creator' gene for cerebral cortex points to potential stem cell treatments Jan 17, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- Gene scan finds link across array of childhood brain disorders Aug 22, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Classical and Quantum Mechanics via Lie algebras
Apr 15, 2011 I'd like to open a discussion thread for version 2 of the draft of my book ''Classical and Quantum Mechanics via Lie algebras'', available online at http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/0810.1019 , and for the...
- More from Physics Forums - Independent Research
More news stories
Two mutations central to the development of infantile myofibromatosis (IM)—a disorder characterized by multiple tumors involving the skin, bone, and soft tissue—may provide new therapeutic targets, according to researchers ...
Genetics 2 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Can human genes be patented? That was the question posed by Alan J. Snyder, vice president and associate provost for research and graduate studies at Lehigh, and Lee Kaplan, scientific director of cellular and molecular genetics ...
Genetics 9 hours ago | 4 / 5 (1) | 0
Researchers from Queen Mary, University of London have led the largest sequencing study of human disease to date, investigating the genetic basis of six autoimmune diseases.
Genetics May 22, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
University of Minnesota Medical School researchers from the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, in partnership with the University's Brain Tumor Program, have developed a new mouse model of malignant peripheral ...
Genetics May 20, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Northwestern University scientists have shown a gene involved in neurodegenerative disease also plays a critical role in the proper function of the circadian clock.
Genetics May 16, 2013 | 3 / 5 (1) | 1 |
(Medical Xpress)—A new study by researchers in the US has shown that an ancient virus can be modified to help in the fight against the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV, which is the equivalent in monkeys ...
8 hours ago | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Women at a particular stage in their monthly menstrual cycle may be more vulnerable to some of the psychological side-effects associated with stressful experiences, according to a study from UCL.
4 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Biological processes are generally based on events at the molecular and cellular level. To understand what happens in the course of infections, diseases or normal bodily functions, scientists would need to ...
5 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Talking on a hands-free device while behind the wheel can lead to a sharp increase in errors that could imperil other drivers on the road, according to new research from the University of Alberta.
1 hour ago | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Regulating the distribution of power in neurons is done by a system that makes the national electric grid look simple by comparison. Each neuron has several thousand mitochondria confined ...
23 hours ago | 4.9 / 5 (9) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Patients with diabetes who are depressed are much more likely to develop episodes of dangerously low blood sugars, or hypoglycemia, than are those who are not depressed, a new study has ...
9 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |