Transplanted neural stem cells treat ALS in mouse model
Transplanted neural stem cells (shown here) were used to treat a mouse model of ALS. Credit: Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is untreatable and fatal. Nerve cells in the spinal cord die, eventually taking away a person's ability to move or even breathe. A consortium of ALS researchers at multiple institutions, including Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and the University of Massachusetts Medical School, tested transplanted neural stem cells as a treatment for the disease. In 11 independent studies, they found that transplanting neural stem cells into the spinal cord of a mouse model of ALS slows disease onset and progression. This treatment also improves host motor function and significantly prolongs survival. The transplanted neural stem cells did not benefit ALS mice by replacing deteriorating nerve cells. Instead, neural stem cells help by producing factors that preserve the health and function of the host's remaining nerve cells. They also reduce inflammation and suppress the number of disease-causing cells in the host's spinal cord.
"While not a cure for human ALS, we believe that the careful transplantation of neural stem cells, particularly into areas that can best sustain life—respiratory control centers, for example—may be ready for clinical trials," Evan Y. Snyder, M.D., Ph.D., director of Sanford-Burnham's Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Program and senior author of the study.
Neural stem cells
In this study, researchers at multiple institutions conducted 11 independent studies to test neural stem cell transplantation in a well-established mouse model of ALS. They all found that this cell therapy reduced the symptoms and course of the ALS-like disease. They observed improved motor performance and respiratory function in treated mice. Neural stem cell transplant also slowed the disease's progression. What's more, 25 percent of the treated ALS mice in this study survived for one year or more—roughly three to four times longer than untreated mice.
Neural stem cells are the precursors of all brain cells. They can self-renew, making more neural stem cells, and differentiate, becoming nerve cells or other brain cells. These cells can also rescue malfunctioning nerve cells and help preserve and regenerate host brain tissue. But they've never before been studied extensively in a good model of adult ALS.
How neural stem cells benefit ALS mice
Transplanted neural stem cells helped the ALS mice, but not for the obvious reason—not because they became nerve cells, replacing those missing in the ALS spinal cord. The biggest impact actually came from a series of other beneficial neural stem cell activities. It turns out neural stem cells produce protective molecules. They also trigger host cells to produce their own protective molecules. In turn, these factors help spare host nerve cells from further destruction.
Then a number of other positive events take place in treated mice. The transplanted normal neural stem cells change the fate of the host's own diseased neural stem cells—for the better. This change decreases the number of toxin-producing, disease-promoting cells in the host's spinal cord. Transplanted neural stem cells also reduce inflammation.
"We discovered that cell replacement plays a surprisingly small role in these impressive clinical benefits. Rather, the stem cells change the host environment for the better and protect the endangered nerve cells," said Snyder. "This realization is important because most diseases are now being recognized as multifaceted in their cause and their symptoms—they don't involve just one cell type or one malfunctioning process. We are coming to recognize that the multifaceted actions of the stem cell may address a number of these disease processes."
Journal reference: Science Translational Medicine
Provided by Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
- Post brain injury: New nerve cells originate from neural stem cells Mar 11, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- Stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury Sep 25, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- New class of stem cell-like cells discovered offers possibility for spinal cord repair Sep 15, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- A new program for neural stem cells May 12, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Stem cells from muscle tissue may hold key to cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases Oct 12, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
Pressure-volume curve: Elastic Recoil Pressure don't make sense
20 hours ago From pressure-volume curve of the lung and chest wall (attached photo), I don't understand why would the elastic recoil pressure of the lung is...
If you became brain-dead, would you want them to pull the plug?
May 17, 2013 I'd want the rest of me to stay alive. Sure it's a lousy way to live but it beats being all-the-way dead. Maybe if I make it 20 years they'll...
MRI bill question
May 15, 2013 Dear PFers, The hospital gave us a $12k bill for one MRI (head with contrast). The people I talked to at the hospital tell me that they do not...
Ratio of Hydrogen of Oxygen in Dessicated Animal Protein
May 13, 2013 As an experiment, for the past few months I've been consuming at least one portion of Jell-O or unflavored Knox gelatin per day. I'm 64, in very...
Alcohol and acetaminophen
May 13, 2013 Edit: sorry for the typo in the title , can't edit I looked around on google quite a bit and it's very hard to find precise information on the...
Marie Curie's leukemia
May 13, 2013 Does anyone know what might be the cause of Marie Curie's cancer
- More from Physics Forums - Medical Sciences
More news stories
In 2008 researchers from the University of Southern Denmark showed that the drug thioridazine, which has previously been used to treat schizophrenia, is also a powerful weapon against antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as ...
Medical research May 17, 2013 | 3.7 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Scientists investigating the interaction of a group of proteins in the brain responsible for protecting nerve cells from damage have identified a new target that could increase cell survival.
Medical research May 17, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
New findings by researchers carrying out experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science's Advanced Photon Source (APS) help explain why some drugs that interact with two kinds of human serotonin ...
Medical research May 17, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Peptide molecules derived from the body's natural immune system can help boost the body's defence against life-threatening blood poisoning, joint University research has uncovered.
Medical research May 17, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0 |
A new Montréal study conducted by Dr. May Faraj, associate research professor at the Université de Montréal and invited scientist at the IRCM, along with her research team and medical collaborators, shows ...
Medical research May 17, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
13 hours ago | not rated yet | 0 |
The latest makeover to a massive psychiatric tome honored by some, reviled by others and even called the "Bible" of mental disorders is being released Saturday with a host of new changes.
11 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
A new case of the deadly coronavirus has been detected in Saudi Arabia where 15 people have already died after contracting it, the health ministry announced on Saturday on its Internet website.
11 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
21 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
22 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
A ground-breaking advance in colonoscopy technology signals the future of colorectal care, according to research presented today at Digestive Disease Week(DDW). Additional research focuses on optimizing the minimal withdrawal ...
13 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0