Smoking intensity and cancer markers predict seriousness of bladder cancer

it also affects its course, in that people who smoke more have greater likelihood of developing more aggressive and deadly disease. That is one of the conclusions of a new study published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The study also found that a panel of bladder cancer markers can predict which particular cases are at the highest risk for a fatal outcome.

Researchers have known that smoking is one of the most common causes of bladder cancer, but they've wondered whether it also affects how the disease progresses. To investigate, Richard J. Cote, MD, of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, and Anirban Mitra, MD, PhD, of the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, led a team that analyzed bladder tumors and smoking history in 212 multi-ethnic patients recruited through the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program between 1987 and 1996.

The researchers found that the bladder cancers that developed in individuals who smoked intensely were more likely to be deadly than bladder cancers that developed in those who never smoked, or who smoked less. The study also revealed that changes in particular proteins are often present in bladder cancers that have become deadly. "We have identified a panel of nine molecular markers that can robustly and reproducibly predict bladder cancer prognosis independent of standard clinical criteria and smoking history," said Dr. Mitra. Patients with alterations in six to nine markers had a very poor outcome, raising the hypothesis that these individuals could have benefited from more .

Because the number of changes in these proteins was directly proportional to patients' health outcomes in a progressive fashion, the findings confirm the theory that an accumulation of changes is more important than individual changes in determining the characteristics of a given cancer. The link between smoking intensity and prognosis found in this study points to the incrementally harmful effects of .

"The study's findings are extremely clinically relevant as is one of the most expensive malignancies to treat," said Dr. Cote, who is Director of the Genitourinary Malignancies Program at University of Miami's Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center. "Personalized patient management is urgently needed for this disease as current clinical stratification cannot predict outcomes of individual patients."

More information: "Combination of molecular alterations and smoking intensity predicts bladder cancer outcome: a report from the Los Angeles cancer surveillance program." Anirban P. Mitra, Jose E. Castelao, Debra Hawes, Denice D. Tsao-Wei, Xuejuan Jiang, Shan-Rong Shi, Ram H. Datar, Eila C. Skinner, John P. Stein, Susan Groshen, Mimi C. Yu, Ronald K. Ross, Donald G. Skinner, Victoria K. Cortessis, and Richard J. Cote. CANCER; Published Online: January 14, 2013 (DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27763).

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Patients unaware of link between smoking and bladder cancer

Jul 08, 2008

Even though cigarette smoking accounts for up to half of all bladder cancer cases, few people are aware of the connection – including more than three-quarters of patients who have bladder cancer, according to a new study ...

Prognosis after cystectomy not affected by smoking

Oct 15, 2012

(HealthDay)—Despite the link between cigarette smoking and the development of bladder cancer, the prognosis of people with bladder cancer after undergoing a cystectomy is not affected by cigarette smoking, ...

Selenium may prevent high risk-bladder cancer

Dec 08, 2008

A study published in the December issue of Cancer Prevention Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, suggests that selenium, a trace mineral found in grains, nuts and meats, may aid in the pr ...

Some diabetes drugs may increase risk of bladder cancer

Jul 03, 2012

An increased risk of bladder cancer is linked to the use of pioglitazone, a medication commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, according to a new study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Recommended for you

Americans undergo colonoscopies too often, study finds

3 hours ago

Colonoscopies are a very valuable procedure by which to screen for the presence of colorectal cancer. However, it seems that healthy Americans who do undergo this sometimes uncomfortable examination often ...

User comments