Research opens up possibility of therapies to restore blood-brain barrier
Cerebral capillary of an ANXA1 null mouse
(Medical Xpress)—Research led by Queen Mary, University of London, has opened up the possibility that drug therapies may one day be able to restore the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, potentially slowing or even reversing the progression of diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). The study, funded by the Wellcome Trust, is published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a layer of cells, including endothelial cells, which line the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord. These cells act as a barrier, stopping certain molecules, including immune cells and viruses, passing from the blood stream into the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
In a number of neurodegenerative brain diseases, including MS, the BBB is compromised, allowing inappropriate cells to pass into the brain with devastating consequences.
In this study the researchers identified a specific protein – known as Annexin A1 (ANXA1) – as being integral in maintaining the BBB in the brain. The authors initially found that mice bred to lack this protein showed a decrease in integrity of the BBB compared to controls.
Taking this finding, they then investigated the potential role of ANXA1 in conditions which involve progressive breakdown of the BBB, including MS and Parkinson's disease, by examining post-mortem human brain tissue samples. ANXA1 was present in the cells of samples from individuals who did not have a neurological disease and also in samples from patients who had died with Parkinson's disease. However, it was not detectable in the endothelial cells in samples from patients who had died with MS.
Crucially, the researchers found that treating in vitro brain endothelial cells with human recombinant ANXA1 restored the key cellular features needed to reinstate the integrity of the BBB. The same was seen with the ANXA1 knockout mice, where administering the protein reversed the permeability of the BBB within 24 hours.
Dr Egle Solito, from Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, part of Queen Mary, who co-ordinated the study said: "Our findings suggest this protein plays a key role in maintaining a functioning BBB and, more importantly, has the potential to rescue defects in the BBB. We now need to carry on our research to see how much this molecule may be exploited for therapeutic uses in conditions such as MS, or as a biomarker to help in early diagnosis."
Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Provided by Queen Mary, University of London
- Building the blood-brain barrier Oct 27, 2008 | not rated yet | 0
- A breakthrough in pinpointing protective mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis Dec 02, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Potential new drugs plug brain's biological 'vacuum cleaner' and target HIV Oct 12, 2011 | not rated yet | 0
- Key to blood-brain barrier opens way for treating Alzheimer's and stroke Oct 14, 2010 | not rated yet | 0
- Receptor may hold key to multiple sclerosis treatment Jun 11, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
- Motion perception revisited: High Phi effect challenges established motion perception assumptions Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 2
- Anything you can do I can do better: Neuromolecular foundations of the superiority illusion (Update) Apr 02, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 5
- The visual system as economist: Neural resource allocation in visual adaptation Mar 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 9
- Separate lives: Neuronal and organismal lifespans decoupled Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (8) | 0
- Sizing things up: The evolutionary neurobiology of scale invariance Feb 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 14
How can there be a term called "intestinal metaplasia" of stomach
18 hours ago Hello everyone, Ok Stomach's normal epithelium is simple columnar, now in intestinal type of adenocarcinoma of stomach it undergoes "intestinal...
Pressure-volume curve: Elastic Recoil Pressure don't make sense
May 18, 2013 From pressure-volume curve of the lung and chest wall (attached photo), I don't understand why would the elastic recoil pressure of the lung is...
If you became brain-dead, would you want them to pull the plug?
May 17, 2013 I'd want the rest of me to stay alive. Sure it's a lousy way to live but it beats being all-the-way dead. Maybe if I make it 20 years they'll...
MRI bill question
May 15, 2013 Dear PFers, The hospital gave us a $12k bill for one MRI (head with contrast). The people I talked to at the hospital tell me that they do not...
Ratio of Hydrogen of Oxygen in Dessicated Animal Protein
May 13, 2013 As an experiment, for the past few months I've been consuming at least one portion of Jell-O or unflavored Knox gelatin per day. I'm 64, in very...
Alcohol and acetaminophen
May 13, 2013 Edit: sorry for the typo in the title , can't edit I looked around on google quite a bit and it's very hard to find precise information on the...
- More from Physics Forums - Medical Sciences
More news stories
Trends in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and smoking explain a significant proportion of the decline of intestinal-type noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA) incidence in US men between 1978 and 2008, and are estimated ...
Medical research 8 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
Widely available in pharmacies and health stores, phosphatidylserine is a natural food supplement produced from beef, oysters, and soy. Proven to improve cognition and slow memory loss, it's a popular treatment for older ...
Medical research 12 hours ago | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Researchers at Emory University have identified a protein that stimulates a pair of "orphan receptors" found in the brain, solving a long-standing biological puzzle and possibly leading to future treatments for neurological ...
Medical research 13 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Australian scientists have charted the path of insulin action in cells in precise detail like never before. This provides a comprehensive blueprint for understanding what goes wrong in diabetes.
Medical research 13 hours ago | 4.5 / 5 (6) | 0 |
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine will study gender differences in how the heart uses and stores fat—its main energy source—and how changes in fat metabolism play ...
Medical research 16 hours ago | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Native peoples in regions where cameras are uncommon sometimes react with caution when their picture is taken. The fear that something must have been stolen from them to create the photo ...
13 hours ago | 4.2 / 5 (5) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Despite spending billions of dollars on research and development, drug companies have been unable to come up with effective treatments for dementia and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Now, A. ...
11 hours ago | 4.9 / 5 (9) | 0 |
An experimental sleeping pill from US drug company Merck is effective at helping people fall and stay asleep, according to reviewers at the US Food and Drug Administration, which could soon approve the new drug.
7 hours ago | 3 / 5 (2) | 0
Activating an enzyme known to play a role in the anti-aging benefits of calorie restriction delays the loss of brain cells and preserves cognitive function in mice, according to a study published in the May ...
8 hours ago | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
A drug commonly used to treat depression and anxiety may improve a stress-related heart condition in people with stable coronary heart disease, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.
9 hours ago | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Researchers at USC have found that a class of pharmaceuticals can both prevent and treat Alzheimer's Disease in mice.
10 hours ago | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |