Punishment can enhance performance, academics find

The stick can work just as well as the carrot in improving our performance, a team of academics at The University of Nottingham has found. A study led by researchers from the University's School of Psychology, published recently in the Journal of Neuroscience, has shown that punishment can act as a performance enhancer in a similar way to monetary reward.

Dr Marios Philiastides, who led the work, said: "This work reveals important new information about how the brain functions that could lead to new methods of diagnosing disorders such as , ADHD and , where decision-making processes have been shown to be compromised."

The Nottingham study aimed at looking at how the efficiency with which we make decisions based on ambiguous sensory information—such as visual or auditory—is affected by the potential for, and severity of, anticipated punishment.

To investigate this, they asked participants in the study to perform a simple perceptual task—asking them to judge whether a blurred shape behind a rainy window is a person or something else.

They punished incorrect decisions by imposing monetary penalties. At the same time, they measured the participants' brain activity in response to different amounts of monetary punishment. Brain activity was recorded, non-invasively, using an EEG machine which detects and amplifies from the surface of the scalp through a set of small embedded in a swim-like cap fitted on the participants' head.

They found that participants' performance increased systematically as the amount of punishment increased, suggesting that punishment acts as a performance enhancer in a similar way to monetary reward.

At the neural level, the academics identified multiple and distinct brain activations induced by punishment and distributed throughout different areas of the brain. Crucially, the timing of these activations confirmed that the punishment does not influence the way in which the brain processes the sensory evidence but does have an impact on the brain's decision maker responsible for decoding sensory information at a later stage in the decision-making process.

Finally, they showed that those participants who showed the greatest improvements in performance also showed the biggest changes in . This is a key finding as it provides a potential route to study differences between individuals and their personality traits in order to characterise why some may respond better to reward and punishment than others.

A more thorough understanding of the influence of punishment on decision-making and how we make choices could lead to useful information on how to use incentive-based motivation to encourage certain behaviour.

More information: The paper, Temporal Characteristics of the Influence of Punishment on Perceptual Decision Making in the Human Brain, is available online via the Journal of Neuroscience.

Related Stories

New research on how the brain makes decisions

Dec 04, 2012

(Medical Xpress)—Neuroscience researchers at Trinity College Dublin have opened a new avenue for research on how the brain enables us to make decisions about our environment. By observing the gradual formation ...

Brain's 'social enforcer' centers identified

Oct 03, 2007

Researchers have identified brain structures that process the threat of punishment for violating social norms. They said that their findings suggest a neural basis for treating children, adolescents, and even immature adults ...

In the brain, winning is everywhere

Oct 05, 2011

Winning may not be the only thing, but the human brain devotes a lot of resources to the outcome of games, a new study by Yale researchers suggest.

ADHD medicine affects the brain's reward system

Nov 09, 2012

(Medical Xpress)—A group of scientists from the University of Copenhagen has created a model that shows how some types of ADHD medicine influence the brain's reward system. The model makes it possible to ...

Recommended for you

Emotional adjustment following traumatic brain injury

21 hours ago

Life after a traumatic brain injury resulting from a car accident, a bad fall or a neurodegenerative disease changes a person forever. But the injury doesn't solely affect the survivor – the lives of their spouse or partner ...

New ALS associated gene identified using innovative strategy

Oct 22, 2014

Using an innovative exome sequencing strategy, a team of international scientists led by John Landers, PhD, at the University of Massachusetts Medical School has shown that TUBA4A, the gene encoding the Tubulin Alpha 4A protein, ...

User comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

philw1776
1 / 5 (1) Mar 13, 2013
Grand daughter must be prescient then because she gave her little sister "rope burns" when she failed to read a word correctly. In retrospect it's too bad we stopped her.
antonima
1 / 5 (1) Mar 14, 2013
this is the same reason slave drivers use whips. the fear of punishment in itself will make a person work faster; likewise, certain manual laborers are paid according to the amount of work that they complete. The news here is that they found which parts of the brain are activated, something that is bound to be useful to future researchers.