Mild blast injury causes molecular changes in brain akin to Alzheimer, team says

April 24, 2013

A multicenter study led by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine shows that mild traumatic brain injury after blast exposure produces inflammation, oxidative stress and gene activation patterns akin to disorders of memory processing such as Alzheimer's disease. Their findings were recently reported in the online version of the Journal of Neurotrauma.

Blast-induced (TBI) has become an important issue in , said senior investigator Patrick Kochanek, M.D., professor and vice chair of and director of the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research at Pitt. In many cases of mild TBI, MRI scans and other conventional imaging technology do not show overt damage to the brain.

"Our research reveals that despite the lack of a lot of obvious neuronal death, there is a lot of molecular madness going on in the brain after a blast exposure," Dr. Kochanek said. "Even subtle injuries resulted in significant alterations of ."

The research team developed a rat model to examine whether mild blast exposure in a device called a shock tube caused any changes in the brain even if there was no indication of direct cell death, such as bleeding. Brain tissues of rats exposed to blast and to a sham procedure were tested two and 24 hours after the injury.

Gene activity patterns, which shifted over time, resembled patterns seen in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's, Dr. Kochanek noted. Markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which reflects disruptions of cell signaling, were elevated, but there was no indication of energy failure that would be seen with poor tissue oxygenation.

"It appears that although the neurons don't die after a mild injury, they do sustain damage," he said. "It remains to be seen what multiple exposures, meaning repeat concussions, do to the brain over the long term."

Related Stories

Study links PTSD to hidden head injuries suffered in combat

June 6, 2012

Even when brain injury is so subtle that it can only be detected by an ultra-sensitive imaging test, the injury might predispose soldiers in combat to post-traumatic stress disorder, according to a University of Rochester ...

Recommended for you

Surprising similarity in fly and mouse motion vision

July 29, 2015

At first glance, the eyes of mammals and those of insects do not seem to have much in common. However, a comparison of the neural circuits for detecting motion shows surprising parallels between flies and mice. Scientists ...

Research grasps how the brain plans gripping motion

July 28, 2015

With the results of a new study, neuroscientists have a firmer grasp on the way the brain formulates commands for the hand to grip an object. The advance could lead to improvements in future brain-computer interfaces that ...

New research rethinks how we grab and hold onto objects

July 28, 2015

It's been a long day. You open your fridge and grab a nice, cold beer. A pretty simple task, right? Wrong. While you're debating between an IPA and a lager, your nervous system is calculating a complex problem: how hard to ...

It don't mean a thing if the brain ain't got that swing

July 27, 2015

Like Duke Ellington's 1931 jazz standard, the human brain improvises while its rhythm section keeps up a steady beat. But when it comes to taking on intellectually challenging tasks, groups of neurons tune in to one another ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.