Cholesterol plays a key role in cell migration

May 22, 2014
Researchers Carles Enrich, Meritxell Reverter, Anna Álvarez Guaita, Ana García Melero, Carles Rentero and Elsa Meneses, at the Faculty of Medicine of UB.

University of Barcelona's researchers led by Professor Carles Enrich, from the Department of Cell Biology, Immunology and Neurosciences of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Barcelona (UB) and CELLEX Biomedical Research Centre of IDIBAPS, have found that cholesterol plays a key role in cell mobility and tissue invasion. The results of the study prove that the accumulation of LDL cholesterol cells —the one carried by low-density lipoproteins— may play a crucial role in promoting cell mobility. On the contrary, high levels of HDL cholesterol —the one carried by high-density lipoproteins— may avoid cell propagation. This is a key study to better understand cancer metastasis, the process in which cancer cells invade healthy tissues, and foster the discussion on the relationship between cholesterol levels and cancer incidence.

Daniel Grinberg and Lluïsa Vilageliu, from the Department of Genetics of the Faculty of Biology, and Joan Blasi, from the Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapy of the Faculty of Medicine, participated in the paper, published on the journal Cell Reports. Researchers from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, the University of Sidney (Australia), Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia) and the University of Hamburg (Germany) also collaborated in the study.

The study was developed by means of experiments carried out with cell cultures of patients with Niemann-Pick disease. These people present a genetic anomaly that causes accumulation in the cell; that produces different motor and neurological disorders. "It is generally thought that cholesterol, one of the most important lipids in our body, is in the blood; but few people ask themselves what cholesterol does in the cell", points out Carles Enrich. "Cholesterol —adds the researcher— plays different functions in the cell. Besides being crucial to produce membranes, it also regulates vesicular trafficking. Now, it has been proved that cholesterol plays a key role in the regulation of other mechanisms, for instance cell mobility and propagation and, therefore, it is a crucial factor in metastasis".

Most cells in our body bind other cells by means of integrins, molecules that act as bridges located at the cell surface. UB researchers explored how integrins move in the and discovered cholesterol's key role. Enrich points out that "in the cell, cholesterol controls the trafficking of vesicles, which are responsible for transporting integrins to cell surface. Cholesterol depletion in the trans-Golgi network interferes integrin trafficking which has direct repercussions on cell migration".

New knowledge about the mechanisms of cancer metastasis

The study provides new therapeutic options to control metastasis and points out a strategy to be applied to cancer patients who also have cholesterol disorders. "It must be considered that the drugs prescribed to regulate cholesterol may modify cell migration ability. Therefore, progress in personalized therapy is absolutely important", highlights Enrich.

Now, researchers' challenge is to understand why cholesterol stays in the cell. "We want to study what endosome membrane mechanisms block intracellular traffic and hold cholesterol and their negative consequences for our health", concludes Carles Enrich.

Explore further: Protein that directs cholesterol traffic identified

More information: "Cholesterol Regulates Syntaxin 6 Trafficking at trans-Golgi Network Endosomal Boundaries." Reverter M, Rentero C, Garcia-Melero A, Hoque M, Vilà de Muga S, Alvarez-Guaita A, Conway JR, Wood P, Cairns R, Lykopoulou L, Grinberg D, Vilageliu L, Bosch M, Heeren J, Blasi J, Timpson P, Pol A, Tebar F, Murray RZ, Grewal T, Enrich C. Cell Rep. 2014 May 8;7(3):883-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.043. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Related Stories

Protein that directs cholesterol traffic identified

February 20, 2012

(Medical Xpress) -- A protein that directs traffic within human cells has been identified as playing a key role in the accumulation of so-called “bad” cholesterol, according to a new study.

Study finds cancer-fighting goodness in cholesterol

April 19, 2012

A Simon Fraser University researcher is among four scientists who argue that cholesterol may slow or stop cancer cell growth. They describe how cholesterol-binding proteins called ORPs may control cell growth in A Detour ...

Unexpected player in regulation of blood cholesterol levels

January 27, 2014

Kinesins are motor proteins that "walk" along microtubules and transport various cargoes throughout the cell. A study in The Journal of Cell Biology uncovers an unexpected role for one kinesin in the pathway that regulates ...

Recommended for you

Basic research fuels advanced discovery

August 26, 2016

Clinical trials and translational medicine have certainly given people hope and rapid pathways to cures for some of mankind's most troublesome diseases, but now is not the time to overlook the power of basic research, says ...

New method creates endless supply of kidney precursor cells

August 25, 2016

Salk Institute scientists have discovered the holy grail of endless youthfulness—at least when it comes to one type of human kidney precursor cell. Previous attempts to maintain cultures of the so-called nephron progenitor ...

New avenue for understanding cause of common diseases

August 25, 2016

A ground-breaking Auckland study could lead to discoveries about many common diseases such as diabetes, cancer and dementia. The new finding could also illuminate the broader role of the enigmatic mitochondria in human development.

Strict diet combats rare progeria aging disorders

August 25, 2016

Mice with a severe aging disease live three times longer if they eat thirty percent less. Moreover, they age much healthier than mice that eat as much as they want. These are findings of a joint study being published today ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

dr k ramakrishnan
not rated yet May 22, 2014
So it is ideal not to lower theLDL level below 70mg% and moreover any mechanism preventing the oxidation of LDL is better alternative to protect both heart & brain
.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.