Outwitting immunity to treat disease: Start-up raises 33 millions CHF

by Lionel Pousaz
Outwitting immunity to treat disease: start-up raises 33 millions CHF
Human T-Cell. Credit: Creative commons NIAID/NIH

EPFL start-up Anokion has the immune system in its sights. The company has developed technology for retraining white blood cells that holds promise for treating autoimmune, allergic, and a number of other diseases. A group of private investors have pledged 33 millions Swiss francs (37 million dollars) into the young company.

What do , type I diabetes and food allergies have in common? All these conditions are caused by an abnormal immune response; that attack their own body cells or overreact to external elements. In EPFL's Innovation Park, the start-up company Anokion is developing an extremely promising technology to treat autoimmune conditions and other maladies. The first are planned for 2017.

And the range of applications isn't just limited to autoimmune disease. The body also develops to many used to treat hemophilia and cancer, for example, and Anokion's approach may be able to prevent these reactions as well. Now, a group of venture capitalists specializing in pharmaceuticals (Novartis Venture Fund, Novo Ventures and Versant Ventures) has recognized the potential and injected 33 millions Swiss francs (37 millions dollars) into the young company.

How to trick the immune system

Anokion's technology takes advantage of a behavior exhibited by white that is still not very well understood. These cells, the advance guard of the , tend to calm down in the presence of cells that are dying normally at the end of their life cycle. Their cousins, the , do just that in healthy individuals, turning over en masse on the order of 200 million per day.

The researchers developed a technique to attach the protein responsible for triggering the immune response onto these red blood cells. A bit like Pavlov's dogs, who learned to associate the sound of a bell with the appearance of food, the white blood cells associate the "foreign" protein with the millions of calming messages released every day by the red blood cells as they expire. The undesirable immune response disappears. In 2012, the EPFL laboratory led by Jeffrey Hubbell used this technique to prevent disease in mice that were developing type I diabetes. The research was published in PNAS and received an enormous amount of attention.

"The technology delivers proteins, be they autoimmune antigens or protein drugs, in a manner that re-trains the immune system to accept them as the body's own," explains Hubbell "We are delighted that leading biotech venture funds have recognized the value of our approach, providing the necessary financial means to move forward."

Anokion's mission is to commercialize this discovery so that it can move out of the lab and into use as a treatment for disease. For now, the researchers are concentrating on a specific kind of white blood cell, T lymphocytes, that are implicated in many autoimmune and allergic diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes.

The technology has a far wider potential, however. Protein drugs are used to treat diseases such as cancer and a number of genetic diseases such as hemophilia. Despite their effectiveness in treating these diseases, the body frequently recognizes these proteins as foreign and mounts an immune response against them, sometimes even after one or a few doses. After this, the body neutralizes the protein drugs that have been developed to heal it.

Using Anokion's technique, the drug could be administered over a much longer period by teaching the immune system to leave it alone. Multiple therapeutic molecules that trigger immune reactions have been withdrawn after clinical trials due to these immunogenicity challenges. The researchers think that many of these could be rehabilitated if the of the T-cells during treatment could be controlled.

Anokion is planning clinical trials for 2017. They will initially test their technology in conjunction with a drug known to trigger strong immune reactions before moving on to autoimmune diseases.

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Autoimmune disease—retraining white blood cells

Dec 17, 2012

Symptoms of an autoimmune disease disappeared after a team of scientists retrained the white blood cells. This method is extremely promising for treating diseases such as type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis.

Sensitive balance in the immune system

Apr 11, 2014

Apoptosis is used by cells that are changed by disease or are simply not needed any longer to eliminate themselves before they become a hazard to the body—on a cellular level, death is part of life. Disruption ...

Immune protein could stop diabetes in its tracks

May 20, 2013

Melbourne researchers have identified an immune protein that has the potential to stop or reverse the development of type 1 diabetes in its early stages, before insulin-producing cells have been destroyed.

Recommended for you

Could trophoblasts be the immune cells of pregnancy?

Dec 18, 2014

Trophoblasts, cells that form an outer layer around a fertilized egg and develop into the major part of the placenta, have now been shown to respond to inflammatory danger signals, researchers from Norwegian University of ...

Moms of food-allergic kids need dietician's support

Dec 18, 2014

Discovering your child has a severe food allergy can be a terrible shock. Even more stressful can be determining what foods your child can and cannot eat, and constructing a new diet which might eliminate entire categories ...

Multiple allergic reactions traced to single protein

Dec 17, 2014

Johns Hopkins and University of Alberta researchers have identified a single protein as the root of painful and dangerous allergic reactions to a range of medications and other substances. If a new drug can ...

User comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.