Unexpected origin for important parts of the nervous system

A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows that a part of the nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, is formed in a way that is different from what researchers previously believed. In this study, which is published in the journal Science, a new phenomenon is investigated within the field of developmental biology, and the findings may lead to new medical treatments for congenital disorders of the nervous system.

Almost all of the body's functions are controlled by the autonomous, involuntary , for example the heart and blood vessels, liver and gastrointestinal system. At rest, the body is set up for energy saving functions, which is regulated by the parasympathetic part of the autonomous nervous system. Current understanding is that many important types of cells, including the parasympathetic nerve cells in various organs, originate in early progenitor cells that move short distances while the embryo is still small. But this model does not explain how many of our organs – which develop relatively late, when the embryo is large – are furnished with cells that form the parasympathetic neurons.

This study alters a fundamental principal of our understanding of how the peripheral nervous system develops in the body. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have made three-dimensional reconstructions of mouse embryos. These show that the parasympathetic neurons are formed from immature glial cells known as Schwann cell precursors that travel along the peripheral nerves out to the body's tissues and organs. The have the properties of and may be the origin of several different types of cells. For example, the researchers behind this new study have previously demonstrated that the majority of our melanocytes () are born from these cells.

"Our study focuses on a new principal of , a targeted recruitment of cells that are probably also used in the reconstruction of tissue. Despite the elegance, simplicity and beauty of this principal, it is still unclear how the number of parasympathetic neurons is controlled and why only some of the cells transported by nerves are transformed into that which becomes an important part of the nervous system", says Igor Adameyko at the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology who, together with Patrik Ernfors at the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, is responsible for the study.

Somewhat surprisingly, the researchers found that the entire arises from these progenitor cells that travel along the . The researchers hope that this discovery will open up the possibility of new ways to treat congenital disorders of the autonomous nervous system using regenerative medicine.

More information: "Parasympathetic neurons originate from nerve-associated peripheral glial progenitors", Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Alessandro Furlan, Maryam Khatibi Shahidi, Marcela, Giovenco, Nina Kaukua, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Vassilis Pachnis, Fatima Memic, Ulrika Marklund, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier, Kaj Fried, Patrik Ernfors, and Igor Adameyko, Science online 12 June 2014. www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/… 1126/science.1253281

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JVK
1 / 5 (4) Jun 13, 2014
Does anyone else realize the cell type differentiation that enables neurogenic niche construction (networks of neurons) is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled, like cell type differentiation is in all individuals of all species from microbes to man?

"Unexpected origin" attests to magical thinking, and I thought that had been largely eliminated by experimental evidence of ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction with increasing organismal complexity via conserved molecular mechanisms of epigenetic cause and effect.

Something appears to have gone horribly wrong.
"Toward a combinatorial nature of microRNA regulation in human cells" should have started discussion of amino acid substitutions, chromosomal rearrangements, and speciation in 2012.

Have others simply been preparing for more reports on unexpected origins? http://nar.oxford...abstract
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Jun 14, 2014
why not ask the authors directly jk?
http://www.scienc...281.full

or are you afraid of being ridiculed?
perhaps AAAS banned you from commenting with pseudoscience or misinterpretations because you have issues comprehending studies?
you cannot even got your own right... and you continually confuse the fact that your model CREATES mutations and you try to debunk mutations, whereas your model actually SUPPORTS mutations and evolution.

try posting your comment to the authors directly on AAAS. or do you post here because of the lack of moderation?
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Jun 14, 2014
http://www.bsd-jo...nt/5/1/8

"...the emergence of sex differences in the brain may be a gradual process that is cemented over the organism's life. Our data provide a new perspective by showing that most sex differences in CpG methylation are dynamic and not the result of acute modifications in response to hormones."

My comment to AAAS about "The sheep genome illuminates biology of the rumen and lipid metabolism" is here http://comments.s....1252806

Only an idiot would continue to insist that mutations cause sex differences in cell types or any other differences in cell types in any individual of any species. The differences are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jun 14, 2014
My comment to AAAS about "The sheep genome illuminates biology of the rumen and lipid metabolism" is here
@jk
but you DIDN'T comment about the ABOVE STUDY to which I linked, AGAIN, in my post! why is that?
maybe because comments like this
Only an idiot would continue to insist that mutations cause
while also saying
Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
is what is called STUPID? because you say mutations are bad, but then you say that mutations are the cause. remember when we talked about mutations?I asked
DOES your model make any changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element?
This is a yes or no answer
(this is the definition of mutation) to which you answered
YES!
--Thanks for asking
IF mutations are BAD
AND you say yourself that your model causes mutations
THEN one can only conclude, per your own words and conclusions, that YOU DON'T KNOW WHAT YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Jun 14, 2014
In my comment to Science (AAAS) http://comments.s....1252806 I wrote:

"The likelihood that species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man suggests that attributing the evolution of any organ to a mutation is a misatribution. The misatribution appears to support a theory invented by population geneticists to explain what is actually nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biodiversity.

If the rumen is an ecological adaptation, any suggestion that it exemplifies mutation-driven evolution is one that can now be challenged by experimental evidence from the extant literature on how the nutrient-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance contributes to cell type differentiation in individuals of all species."

If you find other studies that report what appears to be mutation-driven evolution published in Science or Nature or Cell, I may comment on how ridiculous their misrepresentations are, too.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jun 15, 2014
If you find other studies that report what appears to be mutation-driven evolution published in Science or Nature or Cell, I may comment on how ridiculous their misrepresentations are, too.
@jk
I found one for you to tear apart!
here is one author that talks about MUTATIONS and how MUTATIONS cause evolution, as well as diversity and MORE...
you can find it here: https://sciencex....ser/JVK/

the author is a complete idiot... he cannot even comprehend that his model creates mutations! you had better set him straight...
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Jun 15, 2014
http://dx.doi.org...jn.12539 Behavior is receptor-mediated. If you can convince people it is not receptor-mediated, you can probably convince them that the different morphological and behavioral phenotypes of species from microbes to man somehow evolved via mutations and natural selection. However, without the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes, ecological variation could not possibly result in the ecological adaptations some people think are the result of mutation-driven evolution.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (1) Jun 17, 2014
@jk
IF YOU BELIEVE this
ecological variation could not possibly result in the ecological adaptations some people think are the result of mutation-driven evolution
then there TRULY IS NO POSSIBLE WAY that YOUR OWN MODEL can produce results and answer the variation & ecological adaptations questions because.... remember when we talked about mutations? I asked
DOES your model make any changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element?
This is a yes or no answer
(this is the definition of mutation) to which you answered
YES!
--Thanks for asking
So, per your own words, you've just shown that you cannot comprehend what you are talking about.
you are a PSEUDOSCIENCE HACK and stupid (not ignorant)

You've been taught but STILL you ignore the evidence and misrepresent the studies (like Lenski)
just because your religion believes something doesn't mean it is true. proof of that is your incompetence on PO and ME posting BS