Happiness: Is it in your DNA?

January 14, 2016
A depiction of the double helical structure of DNA. Its four coding units (A, T, C, G) are color-coded in pink, orange, purple and yellow. Credit: NHGRI

Happiness is a state of mind, the gurus say.

Well, actually, it could be more a function of genes, the authors of an unusual scientific study asserted on Thursday.

Nations whose inhabitants boast a certain gene variant, they found, had much higher self-reported levels.

Happiness at the national level was more closely related to this variant than factors like wealth, country stability, or even disease prevalence—possibly explaining, for example, why Nigerians rate themselves happier than Germans.

"Feeling happy, relaxed and in a good mood does not depend on the prosperity and safety of a country," study co-author Michael Minkov of the Varna University of Management in Bulgaria, told AFP.

"Actually the correlation between happiness and safety seems to be inverse. The highest murder and robbery rates in the world are in northern Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa and that is precisely where the happiest and most relaxed people are."

The study, published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Happiness Studies, claims to be the first to show a link between genetics and happiness at the national level.

Minkov and his colleague Michael Harris Bond from Hong Kong Polytechnic University, relied on the World Values Survey (WVS), a ranking based on questionnaires in which respondents have to rate themselves as "very happy," "rather happy," "not very happy" or "not at all happy".

They compared this to data on the ethnic prevalence of "A allele", a variant of a gene involved in regulating anandamide, a substance which enhances sensory pleasure and helps reduce pain.

Unhappy Asians

The country with the highest happiness rating, Mexico, also had the highest estimated prevalence of A allele, the researchers found.

Ghana and Nigeria also had high ratings for both, as did Columbia, Venezuela and Ecuador.

Iraq and Jordan, along with Hong Kong, China, Thailand and Taiwan—all of which had a low prevalence of A allele—were also the least likely to rate themselves as "very happy".

Northern Europeans had a much higher prevalence of the A allele, and rate themselves happier than those in central and southern Europe.

The genetic data used corresponded to ethnicity, which meant researchers had to estimate "national" figures by taking into account each country's mix of ethnic groups.

Evolution was one possible explanation for higher A allele prevalence in equatorial and tropical environments, said Minkov.

Perhaps "to survive in those stressful societies you need genes that help you cope with the stress," he said. The same may be true for cold, harsh northern Europe.

Genes are, of course, not the whole story, the team emphasised.

And there were exceptions: Russians and Estonians, with high A allele prevalence, scored low on the happiness scale.

This "may be a lasting effect of the economic and political difficulties that East European countries continue to experience," the authors wrote.

Explore further: New research reveals that people who migrate to wealthier countries aren't any happier

More information: Michael Minkov et al. A Genetic Component to National Differences in Happiness, Journal of Happiness Studies (2016). DOI: 10.1007/s10902-015-9712-y

Related Stories

Genes play a key part in the recipe for a happy country

October 30, 2014

Why are the Danes naturally more cheerful than the Brits, and why are we in turn more upbeat than the French? Research presented as part of this year's ESRC Festival of Social Sciences shows us that the recipe behind a happy ...

Adults' happiness on the decline, research found

November 5, 2015

Are you less happy than your parents were at the same age? It may not be all in your head. Researchers led by San Diego State University professor Jean M. Twenge found adults over age 30 are not as happy as they used to be, ...

Recommended for you

People with alcohol dependency lack important enzyme

August 30, 2016

A research group under the leadership of Linköping University Professor Markus Heilig has identified an enzyme whose production is turned off in nerve cells of the frontal lobe when alcohol dependence develops. The deficiency ...

3 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

LaPortaMA
not rated yet Jan 14, 2016
Cause or effect?
Exceptions? Disproof.
Squirrel
not rated yet Jan 15, 2016
Why no research upon "A allele" and happiness in individuals? People with it and boosted anandamide should be happy and if not, miserable. Surely that is easy to study--and if it existed--get publishable data? Since we do not see that data, I wonder if the relationship exists--any more than many other correlations that come--and since they never replicated--go in the scientific literature.
Ojorf
not rated yet Jan 15, 2016
Nations whose inhabitants boast a certain gene variant, they found, had much higher self-reported happiness levels.


They found the LaYH+ gene variant! (Lying about Your Happiness)

;)

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.