News tagged with antibodies
If smoking a cigarette no longer delivers pleasure, will smokers quit? It's the idea behind a nicotine vaccine being created by MIT and Harvard researchers, in which an injection of synthetic nanoparticles ...
Addiction May 02, 2012 | 4.6 / 5 (14) | 9 |
Human tumors transplanted into laboratory mice disappeared or shrank when scientists treated the animals with a single antibody, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine. The antibody works ...
Cancer Mar 26, 2012 | 5 / 5 (12) | 0 |
In the early 1950's, a 66-year-old woman, sick with colon cancer, received a blood transfusion. Then, unexpectedly, she suffered a severe rejection of the transfused blood. Reporting on her case, the French ...
Medical research Mar 20, 2013 | 5 / 5 (11) | 0 |
In a serendipitous discovery, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have found a way to turn bone marrow stem cells directly into brain cells.
Medical research Apr 22, 2013 | 5 / 5 (11) | 2 |
Pathological changes typical of Alzheimer's disease were significantly reduced in mice by blockade of an immune system transmitter. A research team from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the University ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Nov 25, 2012 | 5 / 5 (10) | 0 |
Researchers develop novel anti-body vaccine that blocks addictive nicotine chemicals from reaching the brain
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have developed and successfully tested in mice an innovative vaccine to treat nicotine addiction.
Medical research Jun 27, 2012 | 5 / 5 (7) | 7 |
Researchers have discovered a unique monoclonal antibody that can effectively reach inside a cancer cell, a key goal for these important anticancer agents, since most proteins that cause cancer or are associated with cancer ...
Cancer Mar 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (6) | 0 |
A team led by scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has unveiled a new technique for vaccine design that could be particularly useful against ...
HIV & AIDS Mar 28, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (6) | 1 |
(Medical Xpress) -- Australian scientists have overcome one of the most pressing problems facing the pharmaceutical industry how to create antibodies that are stable enough to meet stringent requirements necessary ...
Medications Jun 29, 2012 | 4.3 / 5 (6) | 1 |
(Phys.org) -- A group of scientists in Singapore and the UK have isolated a human antibody capable of effectively neutralizing the mosquito-borne dengue virus. Dengue fever is currently incurable and infects ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Jun 22, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 1 |
Scientists at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have used injections of antibodies to rapidly reverse the onset of Type I diabetes in mice genetically bred to develop the disease. Moreover, ...
Diabetes Jul 05, 2012 | 4.2 / 5 (6) | 1 |
Toward 'universal' vaccine: Scientists describe antibodies that protect against large variety of flu viruses
A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and Crucell Vaccine Institute in the Netherlands describes three human antibodies that provide broad protection against Influenza B virus strains. ...
Medical research Aug 09, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
(HealthDay)—A new, lab-created antibody that mimics the action of a naturally occurring molecule causes weight loss in monkeys, researchers report.
Medical research Nov 28, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Antibodies against amyloid beta (Aβ) protein deposits that are thought to play a role in Alzheimer's disease have shown some success in preventing the buildup of deposits in animals, but they have not been effective at removing ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Dec 05, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Although scientific evidence suggests that vaccines do not cause autism, approximately one-third of parents continue to express concern that they do; nearly 1 in 10 parents refuse or delay vaccinations because they believe ...
Pediatrics Mar 29, 2013 | 4.2 / 5 (5) | 1
Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. They are typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains—to form, for example, monomers with one unit, dimers with two units or pentamers with five units. Antibodies are produced by a kind of white blood cell called a plasma cell. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter.
Although the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen binding sites, to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a different target, known as an antigen. This huge diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide diversity of antigens. The unique part of the antigen recognized by an antibody is called an epitope. These epitopes bind with their antibody in a highly specific interaction, called induced fit, that allows antibodies to identify and bind only their unique antigen in the midst of the millions of different molecules that make up an organism. Recognition of an antigen by an antibody tags it for attack by other parts of the immune system. Antibodies can also neutralize targets directly by, for example, binding to a part of a pathogen that it needs to cause an infection.
The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system. Production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.
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