News tagged with brain development
Human intelligence and behavior require optimal functioning of a large number of genes, which requires enormous evolutionary pressures to maintain. A provocative hypothesis published in a recent set of Science and Society ...
Genetics Nov 12, 2012 | 3.8 / 5 (37) | 78 |
Genes linked to autism and schizophrenia are only switched on during the early stages of brain development, according to a study in mice led by researchers at the University of Oxford.
Genetics Feb 11, 2013 | 3.4 / 5 (30) | 0 |
A compound produced from fish oil that appears to target leukemia stem cells could lead to a cure for the disease, according to Penn State researchers. The compound -- delta-12-protaglandin J3, or D12-PGJ3 ...
Cancer Dec 22, 2011 | 5 / 5 (16) | 1 |
Autism results from abnormal cell communication. Testing a new theory, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have used a newly discovered function of an old drug to restore cell communications ...
Autism spectrum disorders Mar 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (16) | 12 |
(Medical Xpress)—Specific DNA once dismissed as junk plays an important role in brain development and might be involved in several devastating neurological diseases, UC San Francisco scientists have found.
Genetics Apr 15, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (14) | 2 |
Studies of lucid dreamers visualize which centers of the brain become active when we become aware of ourselves.
Neuroscience Jul 27, 2012 | 4.7 / 5 (14) | 12 |
Researchers at the Salk Institute have discovered a startling feature of early brain development that helps to explain how complex neuron wiring patterns are programmed using just a handful of critical genes. ...
Medical research Feb 10, 2012 | 4.9 / 5 (11) | 1 |
Vaginal birth triggers the expression of a protein in the brains of newborns that improves brain development and function in adulthood, according to a new study by Yale School of Medicine researchers, who ...
Neuroscience Aug 08, 2012 | 4.6 / 5 (10) | 0 |
Exposure to radiation from cell phones during pregnancy affects the brain development of offspring, potentially leading to hyperactivity, Yale School of Medicine researchers have determined.
Health Mar 15, 2012 | 3.2 / 5 (13) | 22 |
(Medical Xpress)—A research team from Stanford University has found that injecting the blood of young mice into older mice can cause new neural development and improved memory. Team lead Saul Villeda presented ...
Medical research Oct 19, 2012 | 5 / 5 (8) | 4 |
(Medical Xpress)—Social practices and cultural beliefs of modern life are preventing healthy brain and emotional development in children, according to an interdisciplinary body of research presented recently ...
Psychology & Psychiatry Jan 07, 2013 | 3.6 / 5 (11) | 3 |
Two research studies, co-led by UC Davis neurologist Charles DeCarli and conducted by an international team that included more than 80 scientists at 71 institutions in eight countries, has advanced understanding ...
Genetics Apr 15, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (6) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress) -- Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered in mice a molecular trigger that initiates myelination, the process by which brain cell networks are reinforced with an ...
Medical research Aug 11, 2011 | 5 / 5 (5) | 1 |
For more than 20 years, doctors have been using cells from blood that remains in the placenta and umbilical cord after childbirth to treat a variety of illnesses, from cancer and immune disorders to blood ...
Medical research Jul 16, 2012 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Working with mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have established a link between elevated levels of a stress hormone in adolescence—a critical time for brain development—and genetic changes that, in young adulthood, cause ...
Neuroscience Jan 17, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 3 |
The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.
Some landmarks of embryonic neural development include the birth and differentiation of neurons from stem cell precursors, the migration of immature neurons from their birthplaces in the embryo to their final positions, outgrowth of axons from neurons and guidance of the motile growth cone through the embryo towards postsynaptic partners, the generation of synapses between these axons and their postsynaptic partners, and finally the lifelong changes in synapses which are thought to underlie learning and memory.
Typically, these neurodevelopmental processes can be broadly divided into two classes: activity-independent mechanisms and activity-dependent mechanisms. Activity-independent mechanisms are generally believed to occur as hardwired processes determined by genetic programs played out within individual neurons. These include differentiation, migration and axon guidance to their initial target areas. These processes are thought of as being independent of neural activity and sensory experience. Once axons reach their target areas, activity-dependent mechanisms come into play. Neural activity and sensory experience will mediate formation of new synapses, as well as synaptic plasticity, which will be responsible for refinement of the nascent neural circuits.
Developmental neuroscience uses a variety of animal models including mice Mus musculus , the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , the zebrafish Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis tadpoles and the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, among others.
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