News tagged with cytosol
The cytosol or intracellular fluid (or cytoplasmic matrix) is the liquid found inside cells, that is separated into compartments by membranes. For example, the mitochondrial matrix separates the mitochondrion into compartments.
The contents of a eukaryotic cell within the cell membrane (excluding the cell nucleus), is referred to as the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. In eukaryotes, while many metabolic pathways still occur in the cytosol, others are contained within organelles.
The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. The concentrations of ions such as sodium and potassium are different in the cytosol than in the extracellular fluid; these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation and cell signaling. The cytosol also contains large amounts of macromolecules, which can alter how molecules behave, through macromolecular crowding.
Although once thought to be a simple solution of molecules, multiple levels of organization exist in the cytosol. These include concentration gradients of small molecules such as calcium, large complexes of enzymes that act together to carry out metabolic pathways, and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol.
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In a new study described in the journal Oncogene, researchers reveal how a key player in cell growth, immunity and the inflammatory response can be transformed into a primary contributor to tumor growth.
Cancer May 20, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Vision scientists long have thought that lack of very long chain fatty acids in photoreceptor cells caused blindness in children with Stargardt type 3 retinal degeneration, an incurable eye disease. But researchers at the ...
Ophthalmology Mar 11, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Free-floating pieces of DNA in a cell's watery interior can mean bad things: invading viruses, bacteria, or parasites, ruptured cellular membranes, or disease. Genetic material is meant to be contained ...
Medical research Dec 21, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |