News tagged with dna damage

Related topics: cancer cells , cells , dna repair , breast cancer , cancer

How chromosomes keep their loose ends loose

We take it for granted that our chromosomes won't stick together, yet this kind of cellular disaster would happen constantly were it not for a protein called TRF2. Now, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) ...

Feb 06, 2013
popularity 5 / 5 (3) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

Alcohol by-product destroys blood stem cells

(Medical Xpress)—Scientists at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology have found that stem cells in the body's 'blood cell factory'—the bone marrow—are extremely sensitive to the main breakdown ...

Aug 27, 2012
popularity 4.8 / 5 (5) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

'Pulverized' chromosomes linked to cancer?

They are the Robinson Crusoes of the intracellular world -- lone chromosomes, whole and hardy, stranded outside the nucleus where their fellow chromosomes reside. Such castaways, each confined to its own "micronucleus," ...

Jan 19, 2012
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Chemotherapy may influence leukemia relapse: research

The chemotherapy drugs required to push a common form of adult leukemia into remission may contribute to DNA damage that can lead to a relapse of the disease in some patients, findings of a new study suggest.

Jan 11, 2012
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DNA repair

DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and Radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. Consequently, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure.

The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated a large amount of DNA damage, or one that no longer effectively repairs damage incurred to its DNA, can enter one of three possible states:

The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to its normal functioning and that of the organism. Many genes that were initially shown to influence lifespan have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. Failure to correct molecular lesions in cells that form gametes can introduce mutations into the genomes of the offspring and thus influence the rate of evolution.

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA