News tagged with dna damage
Measuring enzyme levels in cancer patients may reveal healthy cells' ability to survive chemotherapy
New research from MIT may allow scientists to develop a test that can predict the severity of side effects of some common chemotherapy agents in individual patients, allowing doctors to tailor treatments ...
Genetics Apr 05, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have discovered that a certain type of DNA damage long thought to be particularly detrimental to brain cells can actually be part of a regular, non-harmful process. The team further ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Mar 24, 2013 | 5 / 5 (7) | 1 |
We take it for granted that our chromosomes won't stick together, yet this kind of cellular disaster would happen constantly were it not for a protein called TRF2. Now, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) ...
Medical research Feb 06, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Researchers in Stanford's Department of Materials Science and Engineering are using models derived in mechanical labs to look closer at how ultraviolet radiation changes the protective ...
Medical research Oct 05, 2012 | 4.7 / 5 (3) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Scientists at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology have found that stem cells in the body's 'blood cell factory'—the bone marrow—are extremely sensitive to the main breakdown ...
Medical research Aug 27, 2012 | 4.8 / 5 (5) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress) -- Ten more DNA regions linked to type 2 diabetes have been discovered by an international team of researchers, bringing the total to over 60.
Genetics Aug 12, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
A new study published in Science May 11 is shedding light on the molecular details of PARP-1, a DNA damage-detecting enzyme that when inhibited has been shown to be effective in fighting cancer and other ...
Medical research May 10, 2012 | 4.7 / 5 (3) | 0 |
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have rewritten the job description of the protein TopBP1 after demonstrating that it guards early brain cells from DNA damage. Such damage might foreshadow later problems, ...
Neuroscience Apr 23, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
They are the Robinson Crusoes of the intracellular world -- lone chromosomes, whole and hardy, stranded outside the nucleus where their fellow chromosomes reside. Such castaways, each confined to its own "micronucleus," ...
Cancer Jan 19, 2012 | 4.7 / 5 (7) | 0 |
The chemotherapy drugs required to push a common form of adult leukemia into remission may contribute to DNA damage that can lead to a relapse of the disease in some patients, findings of a new study suggest.
Cancer Jan 11, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
For years, researchers have published papers that associate chronic stress with chromosomal damage.
Medical research Aug 21, 2011 | 5 / 5 (13) | 7 |
A class of anti-retroviral drugs commonly used to treat HIV, particularly in Africa and low income countries, can cause premature ageing, according to research published today in the journal Nature Genetics. The study shows ...
Genetics Jun 26, 2011 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—Scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health have a new theory as to why a woman's fertility declines after her mid-30s. They also suggest an approach that might help slow ...
Medical research May 22, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Study IDs key protein for cell death, offers way to kill cancer cells by forcing them into programmed-death pathway
When cells suffer too much DNA damage, they are usually forced to undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, cancer cells often ignore these signals, flourishing even after chemotherapy drugs have ...
Genetics May 14, 2013 | 5 / 5 (9) | 0 |
The understanding of how a powerful protein called p53 protects against cancer development has been upended by a discovery by Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers.
Cancer May 09, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0 |
DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and Radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. Consequently, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure.
The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated a large amount of DNA damage, or one that no longer effectively repairs damage incurred to its DNA, can enter one of three possible states:
The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to its normal functioning and that of the organism. Many genes that were initially shown to influence lifespan have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. Failure to correct molecular lesions in cells that form gametes can introduce mutations into the genomes of the offspring and thus influence the rate of evolution.
For more information about DNA repair, read the full article at
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.