News tagged with genetic changes
Mayo Clinic researchers have used next generation genomic analysis to determine that some of the more aggressive prostate cancer tumors have similar genetic origins, which may help in predicting cancer progression. The findings ...
Cancer May 23, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Scientists said Wednesday that flu infections were rising among pigs raised for slaughter on farms in south and southeastern China, also plagued by bird flu.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes May 07, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0
A different view of cancer cells: New study measures physical changes in tumor cells as they become metastatic
Most cancer deaths are caused by metastatic tumors, which break free from the original cancer site and spread throughout the body. For that to happen, cancer cells must undergo many genetic and physical changes.
Cancer Apr 23, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Scientists from King's College London have identified patterns of epigenetic changes involved in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by studying genetically identical twins who differ in autism traits. The study, published in ...
Autism spectrum disorders Apr 23, 2013 | 3 / 5 (1) | 1 |
A new analysis has found that the loss or amplification of particular DNA regions contributes to the development of prostate cancer, and that patients with two of these DNA changes have a high likelihood of dying from the ...
Cancer Apr 22, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Researchers from the University of Alberta are abuzz after using fruit flies to find new ways of taking advantage of caffeine's lethal effects on cancer cells—results that could one day ...
Cancer Apr 18, 2013 | 4.6 / 5 (11) | 0 |
Researchers at the University Department of Neurology at the MedUni Vienna have identified a gene behind an epilepsy syndrome, which could also play an important role in other idiopathic (genetically caused) ...
Neuroscience Apr 17, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 1
(Medical Xpress)—Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have pinpointed a genetic signature for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from airway cells harvested utilizing a minimally invasive ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 11, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
The intrauterine environment plays an important role in the health of the offspring. Now, experts from the University of Navarra affirm that the mother's stress, due to socio-economic or psycho-social causes, is associated ...
Health Apr 09, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Johns Hopkins scientists have found out how a gout-linked genetic mutation contributes to the disease: by causing a breakdown in a cellular pump that clears an acidic waste product from the bloodstream. By comparing this ...
Medical research Apr 08, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Researchers have generated preclinical data demonstrating that the protein KDM1, which functions as a lysine demethylase, is a potential target for glioma treatment, according to Gangadhara R. Sareddy, Ph.D., a postdoctoral ...
Cancer Apr 08, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—Scientists have described small genetic changes that enable the H5N1 bird flu virus to replicate more easily in the noses of mammals.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 08, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Researchers have identified four genes newly associated with severe childhood obesity. They also found an increased burden of rare structural variations in severely obese children.
Genetics Apr 07, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Researchers at the Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin have managed to predict the probability of a cardiovascular patient suffering a heart attack, stroke or arterial occlusion within three months. In the long-term, ...
Cardiology Apr 04, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
A bird flu virus never before found in humans has grabbed world attention this week after it infected and killed people in China. Scientists have been scrambling to understand how it happened and, more importantly, ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 04, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
In biology, mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, or viruses, or can be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation. In multicellular organisms with dedicated reproductive cells, mutations can be subdivided into germ line mutations, which can be passed on to descendants through the reproductive cells, and somatic mutations, which involve cells outside the dedicated reproductive group and which are not usually transmitted to descendants. If the organism can reproduce asexually through mechanisms such as cuttings or budding the distinction can become blurred. For example, plants can sometimes transmit somatic mutations to their descendants asexually or sexually where flower buds develop in somatically mutated parts of plants. A new mutation that was not inherited from either parent is called a de novo mutation. The source of the mutation is unrelated to the consequence, although the consequences are related to which cells were mutated.
Mutations create variation within the gene pool. Less favorable (or deleterious) mutations can be reduced in frequency in the gene pool by natural selection, while more favorable (beneficial or advantageous) mutations may accumulate and result in adaptive evolutionary changes. For example, a butterfly may produce offspring with new mutations. The majority of these mutations will have no effect; but one might change the color of one of the butterfly's offspring, making it harder (or easier) for predators to see. If this color change is advantageous, the chance of this butterfly surviving and producing its own offspring are a little better, and over time the number of butterflies with this mutation may form a larger percentage of the population.
Neutral mutations are defined as mutations whose effects do not influence the fitness of an individual. These can accumulate over time due to genetic drift. It is believed that the overwhelming majority of mutations have no significant effect on an organism's fitness. Also, DNA repair mechanisms are able to mend most changes before they become permanent mutations, and many organisms have mechanisms for eliminating otherwise permanently mutated somatic cells.
Mutation is generally accepted by the scientific community as the mechanism upon which natural selection acts, providing the advantageous new traits that survive and multiply in offspring or disadvantageous traits that die out with weaker organisms.
For more information about Mutation, read the full article at
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