News tagged with genetic material
(Medical Xpress)—The adverse side effects of certain hepatitis C medications can now be replicated and observed in Petri dishes and test tubes, thanks to a research team led by Craig Cameron, the Paul Berg ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Nov 16, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (6) | 0 |
Scientists have discovered two separate genetic 'signatures' for prostate cancer that appear to be able to predict the severity of the disease, leading to hopes that in future, accuracy of prognosis and treatment of the disease ...
Cancer Oct 08, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have revealed the precise order and timing of hundreds of genetic "switches" required to construct a fully functional heart from embryonic heart cells—providing new ...
Medical research Sep 13, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have identified a regulator protein that plays a crucial role in kidney fibrosis, a condition that leads to kidney failure. Finding this regulator provides a new therapeutic ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Mar 11, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Studying tiny bits of genetic material that control protein formation in the brain, Johns Hopkins scientists say they have new clues to how memories are made and how drugs might someday be used to stop disruptions ...
Medical research Mar 05, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
When cells divide normally, DNA gets copied perfectly and distributed among the daughter cells with an even hand. Occasionally though, DNA breaks during division and is rearranged, resulting in duplications or deletions of ...
Genetics Oct 02, 2011 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Examination of lung tissue and other autopsy material from 68 American soldiers who died of respiratory infections in 1918 has revealed that the influenza virus that eventually killed 50 million people worldwide was circulating ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Sep 19, 2011 | 4.7 / 5 (9) | 0 |
A consortium led by scientists at the University of Oxford and Harvard Medical School has constructed the world's most detailed genetic map.
Genetics Jul 20, 2011 | 5 / 5 (6) | 3 |
Researchers discovered that small pieces of genetic material called microRNAs link the two defining characteristics of fit muscles: the ability to burn sugar and fat and the ability to switch between slow- ...
Medical research May 08, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
A key building block in the Schmallenberg virus could be targeted by anti-viral drugs, according to a new study led from the University of Leeds.
Medical research Apr 17, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
Exosomes are small, virus-like particles that can transport genetic material and signal substances between cells. Researchers at Lund University, Sweden, have made new findings about exosomes released from aggressive brain ...
Medical research Apr 17, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Researchers have discovered that rising temperature induces key changes in the dengue virus when it enters its human host, and the findings represent a new approach for designing vaccines against the aggressive ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 11, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
In a first-of-its-kind experiment using microvesicles generated from mesenchymal bone marrow cells (MSCs) to treat cancer, neurological researchers at Henry Ford Hospital have discovered a novel approach for treatment of ...
Cancer Apr 01, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Until now most experimental vaccines against the highly lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus have lacked effectiveness. But a new vaccine has proven highly effective against the virus when tested in both mice and ferrets. It ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Mar 25, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
When timing is everything: Research says beneficial mutations need specific circumstances to win out
When it comes to the sort of beneficial mutations that drive natural selection, there's new evidence that, evolutionarily speaking, timing is everything.
Genetics Mar 20, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 4 |
A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. All living things depend on genes. Genes hold the information to build and maintain their cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. A modern working definition of a gene is "a locatable region of genomic sequence, corresponding to a unit of inheritance, which is associated with regulatory regions, transcribed regions, and or other functional sequence regions " . In common usage, the term gene often refers to what is known more accurately as an allele.
The notion of a gene has evolved with the science of genetics, which began when Gregor Mendel noticed that biological variations are inherited from parent organisms as specific, discrete traits. The biological entity responsible for defining traits was termed a gene, but the biological basis for inheritance remained unknown until DNA was identified as the genetic material in the 1940s. All organisms have many genes corresponding to many different biological traits, some of which are immediately visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some of which are not, such as blood type or increased risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that comprise life.
In cells, a gene is a portion of DNA that contains both "coding" sequences that determine what the gene does, and "non-coding" sequences that determine when the gene is active (expressed). When a gene is active, the coding and non-coding sequences are copied in a process called transcription, producing an RNA copy of the gene's information. This piece of RNA can then direct the synthesis of proteins via the genetic code. In other cases, the RNA is used directly, for example as part of the ribosome. The molecules resulting from gene expression, whether RNA or protein, are known as gene products, and are responsible for the development and functioning of all living things.
In more technical terms, a gene is a locatable region of genomic sequence, corresponding to a unit of inheritance, and is associated with regulatory regions, transcribed regions and/or other functional sequence regions. The physical development and phenotype of organisms can be thought of as a product of genes interacting with each other and with the environment. A concise definition of a gene, taking into account complex patterns of regulation and transcription, genic conservation and non-coding RNA genes, has been proposed by Gerstein et al.: "A gene is a union of genomic sequences encoding a coherent set of potentially overlapping functional products".
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