News tagged with immunisation
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
When this system is exposed to molecules that are foreign to the body (non-self), it will orchestrate an immune response, but it can also develop the ability to quickly respond to a subsequent encounter (through immunological memory). This is a function of the adaptive immune system. Therefore, by exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, its body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization.
The most important elements of the immune system that are improved by immunization are the B cells (and the antibodies they produce) and T cells. Memory B cell and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second encounter with a foreign molecule. Passive immunization is when these elements are introduced directly into the body, instead of when the body itself has to make these elements.
Immunization be done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. The fact that mutations can cause cancer cells to produce proteins or other molecules that are unknown to the body forms the theoretical basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines. Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine (NicVAX) or the hormone ghrelin (in experiments to create an obesity vaccine).
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.
In the British Medical Journal today, two experts debate whether childhood vaccination should be mandatory in the UK.
Health May 15, 2012 | 3.6 / 5 (8) | 1
The Health and Social Care Act 2012 will have "severe implications" for collecting and monitoring data about the health needs of the population in England, warn experts today.
Health Apr 26, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Unvaccinated children rather than lack of effective vaccines is hindering the elimination of polio in Pakistan and Afgha
Too few children have received sufficient doses of vaccine to wipe out polio in Pakistan and Afghanistan, two of only three countries in the world where endemic polio has yet to be eliminated, according to new research published ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Jul 03, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
The sweet taste of sugar may provide some comfort for babies during immunisations, according to a new Cochrane systematic review. Researchers found babies did not cry for as long if they were given drops of sugar solution ...
Health Dec 11, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Pakistan Tuesday claimed progress in vaccinating thousands of children against polio in a tribal area bordering Afghanistan which had been inaccessible due to unrest for about three years.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Sep 04, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
A measles outbreak has killed 12 children in one of Pakistan's lawless tribal districts and is spreading as fighting, power cuts and curfews cause a vaccine shortage, doctors said Monday.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes May 14, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Canada should show leadership in supporting adoption of the rotavirus vaccination in developing countries, but it must also ensure that all Canadian infants are vaccinated against the virus, states an editorial in CMAJ (Canadian Me ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 10, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
More than 3.5 million Pakistani children missed out on polio vaccination this week in a campaign overshadowed by the deaths of nine immunisation workers, a UN official said Friday.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Dec 21, 2012 | not rated yet | 0