News tagged with insulin

Related topics: diabetes · type 2 diabetes · type 1 diabetes · beta cells · blood sugar

Study reveals protein to target in type 2 diabetes

When the body's cells don't respond normally to insulin—a condition known as insulin resistance—blood glucose levels can increase, resulting in type 2 diabetes. Researchers have long known that insulin resistance is linked ...

Sep 01, 2016
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Finding new targets to treat vascular damage

Diabetes heightens the risk of vascular damage to heart and limbs, and impairs the ability to repair damage with new growth of blood vessels, called angiogenesis. There are no established drugs to improve angiogenesis in ...

Aug 25, 2016
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Insulin pill could make diabetes treatment 'ouchless'

Every day, millions of Americans with diabetes have to inject themselves with insulin to manage their blood-sugar levels. But less painful alternatives are emerging. Scientists are developing a new way of administering the ...

Aug 24, 2016
popularity32 comments 1

Can protein plus exercise improve type 2 diabetes?

Exercise has been shown to improve the health of people with type 2 diabetes. But the benefits of exercise vary greatly between people, meaning some benefit more than others. Now, researchers from Massey University's School ...

Aug 15, 2016
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Discovery of a brain sugar switch

Researchers at Technical University of Munich discovered that our brain actively takes sugar from the blood. Prior to this, researchers around the world had assumed that this was a purely passive process. An international ...

Aug 12, 2016
popularity248 comments 0

Insulin

More reference expression data

Insulin is a hormone that has extensive effects on metabolism and other body functions, such as vascular compliance. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle, and stopping use of fat as an energy source. When insulin is absent (or low), glucose is not taken up by body cells, and the body begins to use fat as an energy source, for example, by transfer of lipids from adipose tissue to the liver for mobilization as an energy source. As its level is a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells). It has several other anabolic effects throughout the body. When control of insulin levels fails, diabetes mellitus results.

Insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus. Patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus depend on external insulin (most commonly injected subcutaneously) for their survival because the hormone is no longer produced internally. Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are insulin resistant, and because of such resistance, may suffer from a relative insulin deficiency. Some patients with Type 2 diabetes may eventually require insulin when other medications fail to control blood glucose levels adequately.

Insulin is a peptide hormone composed of 51 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 5808 Da. It is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The name comes from the Latin insula for "island".

Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animal. Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in 'strength' (in carbohydrate metabolism control effects) in humans because of those variations. Porcine (pig) insulin is especially close to the human version.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA

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