News tagged with metabolism

Related topics: genes · protein · cells · amino acids · diabetes

Gemigliptin, metformin combo beats monotherapy in T2DM

(HealthDay)—Gemigliptin combined with metformin is superior to monotherapy with either drug for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), according to a study published online Sept. 13 in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.

Sep 20, 2016
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Marriage may help diabetics keep weight off

(HealthDay)—Spouses may be good for more than just love and companionship: A new study suggests married people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to be overweight than single people with the blood sugar disease.

Sep 16, 2016
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Metformin influences nitrogen and urea metabolism

The most frequently prescribed oral antidiabetic drug metformin significantly affects metabolic pathways. This was reported by scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum München together with colleagues from the German Diabetes ...

Sep 15, 2016
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Feed a virus, starve a bacterial infection?

A new study puts some old folk wisdom to "feed a cold and starve a fever" to the test. In mouse models of disease, Yale researchers looked at the effects of providing nutrients during infection and found opposing effects ...

Sep 08, 2016
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Diabetes as a risk factor of air pollution

Exposure to air pollution at the place of residence increases the risk of developing insulin resistance as a pre-diabetic state of type 2 diabetes. Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München, in collaboration with colleagues ...

Sep 08, 2016
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TBC1D4 mutation common in north american inuit

(HealthDay)—More than one-quarter of Canadian and Alaskan Inuit have the TBC1D4 mutation resulting in elevated postprandial glucose, and those with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have increased risk of remaining undiagnosed, ...

Aug 31, 2016
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Metabolism

Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories. Catabolism breaks down organic matter, for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration. Anabolism, on the other hand, uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed into another by a sequence of enzymes. Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable but thermodynamically unfavorable reactions by coupling them to favorable ones, and because they act as catalysts to allow these reactions to proceed quickly and efficiently. Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or signals from other cells.

The metabolism of an organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which it will find poisonous. For example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The speed of metabolism, the metabolic rate, also influences how much food an organism will require.

A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways between even vastly different species. For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacteria Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. These striking similarities in metabolism are most likely the result of the high efficiency of these pathways, and of their early appearance in evolutionary history.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA

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