An open surgery means cutting skin and tissues so the surgeon has a direct access to the structures or organs involved. The structures and tissues involved can be seen and touched, and they are directly exposed to the air of the operating room. Examples of open surgery include the removal of organs, such as the gallbladder or kidney.
Open surgery may be contrasted to minimally invasive surgery (MIS) which refers to surgical techniques that do not involve large incisions, in which the tissues involved are not open to the air. In this type of surgery, special viewing devices such as fiber optics or miniature video cameras are placed in the body to view the body tissues, and special miniature instruments are used to manipulate, cut, suture and cauterize tissues. MIS techniques often allow the patient to recuperate faster and with less pain. Not all conditions are treatable with minimally invasive surgery. Minimally invasive surgical techniques include laparoscopy, endoscopy, endovascular techniques, and arthroscopy.
Types of open surgery include Cardiac surgery (Open-Heart Surgery) and so on.
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