News tagged with pharmacology
"Borreliosis" or "Lyme disease" is caused by the bacterium "Borrelia burgdorferi". In Austria approximately 16,000 people fall ill with borreliosis annually following a tick bite. Roughly every fifth tick in Austria carries ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes May 14, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
In a landmark cancer study published online in Nature, researchers at NYU School of Medicine have unraveled a longstanding mystery about how pancreatic tumor cells feed themselves, opening up new therapeutic possibilities for a ...
Cancer May 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Eating fish is good for your heart, but taking fish oil capsules does not help people at high risk of heart problems who are already taking medicines to prevent them, a large study in Italy found.
Cardiology May 08, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0
Researchers study under-recognised and under-treated prothrombotic condition: High platelet reactivity despite treatment
Within the past decade, the variability in pharmacodynamic response and moderate antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel has raised major concerns, in particular because it is associated with an increased risk for ischemic events ...
Cardiology May 06, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
While the search continues for the Fountain of Youth, researchers may have found the body's "fountain of aging": the brain region known as the hypothalamus. For the first time, scientists at Albert Einstein ...
Neuroscience May 01, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (21) | 8 |
Ever since the appetite-regulation hormone called leptin was discovered in 1994, scientists have sought to understand the mechanisms that control its action. It was known that leptin was made by fat cells, reduced appetite ...
Medical research Apr 17, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Mining the records of routine interactions between patients and their care providers can detect drug side effects a couple of years before an official alert from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a Stanford University ...
Medications Apr 10, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
(HealthDay)—A new class of sleep medications appears to help people fall asleep without causing grogginess the next day, researchers say.
Medical research Apr 03, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (6) | 1 |
A new study of genetically modified immune cells by scientists from UCLA and the California Institute of Technology could help improve a promising treatment for melanoma, an often fatal form of skin cancer.
Cancer Mar 22, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—A little more than a year after the FDA approved Kalydeco (Vx-770), the first drug of its kind to treat the underlying cause of cystic fibrosis, University of Missouri researchers believe ...
Medical research Mar 21, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Researchers have discovered a unique monoclonal antibody that can effectively reach inside a cancer cell, a key goal for these important anticancer agents, since most proteins that cause cancer or are associated with cancer ...
Cancer Mar 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (6) | 0 |
An independent panel of experts, including an academic from Queen Mary, University of London, which was tasked by the government to make recommendations regarding drugs and driving, has published its report.
Medications Mar 08, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
A marathon runner approaches the finishing line, but suddenly the sweaty athlete collapses to the ground. Everyone probably assumes that this is because he has expended all energy in his muscles. What few people know is that ...
Neuroscience Mar 04, 2013 | 4.3 / 5 (3) | 1 |
The bacteria that cause acne live on everyone's skin, yet one in five people is lucky enough to develop only an occasional pimple over a lifetime. What's their secret?
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Feb 28, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Certain gene mutations affect individuals' risk of developing a serious kidney condition, as well as their prognosis after being diagnosed with the disease, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of ...
Genetics Feb 21, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison in classic Greek; drug in modern Greek"; and -λογία, "Study of" -logia) is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. The field encompasses drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The former studies the effects of the drugs on biological systems, and the latter the effects of biological systems on the drugs. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the interactions of chemicals with biological receptors, and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of chemicals from the biological systems. Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are frequently confused. Pharmacology deals with how drugs interact within biological systems to affect function. It is the study of drugs, of the reactions of the body and drug on each other, the sources of drugs, their nature, and their properties. In contrast, pharmacy is a biomedical science concerned with preparation, dispensing, dosage, and the safe and effective use of medicines.
Dioscorides' De Materia Medica is often said to be the oldest and most valuable work in the history of pharmacology. The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages in Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, and John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering. Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period. Before the second half of the nineteenth century, the remarkable potency and specificity of the actions of drugs such as morphine, quinine and digitalis were explained vaguely and with reference to extraordinary chemical powers and affinities to certain organs or tissues. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects.
Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts.
For more information about Pharmacology, read the full article at
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