News tagged with protein
(Medical Xpress)—Researchers at the University of Michigan have found a new potential benefit of a molecule in green tea: preventing the misfolding of specific proteins in the brain.
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Mar 05, 2013 | 5 / 5 (10) | 2 |
Few things in life are inevitable – death, taxes, and, if you live long enough, osteoarthritis. No treatment will stop or significantly slow the disease, and joint replacement is the only definitive treatment. That may ...
Arthritis & Rheumatism Mar 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (7) | 0 |
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main energy source for all forms of work inside our cells. Scientists from the University of Helsinki, Finland, have found that even a short-term shortage of ATP supply ...
Cancer Apr 15, 2013 | 5 / 5 (7) | 0 |
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have shed light on one of the major toxic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. The discoveries could lead to a much better understanding of the Alzheimer's process and how ...
Neuroscience Apr 10, 2013 | 5 / 5 (6) | 0 |
Stem cells and tissue-specific cells can be grown in abundance from mature mammalian cells simply by blocking a certain membrane protein, according to scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the ...
Medical research Apr 17, 2013 | 5 / 5 (6) | 1 |
(Medical Xpress)—People are living longer than ever before, thanks to medical and technological advances. Unfortunately, aging can be associated with a decrease in brain function. This is because, unlike ...
Neuroscience Feb 27, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—The inflammation of fat tissue is part of a spiraling series of events that leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in some obese people. But researchers have not understood what triggers ...
Medical research Mar 05, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Research illuminates molecular mechanism for why stimulating environment may protect against Alzheimer's disease
"Use it or lose it." The saying could apply especially to the brain when it comes to protecting against Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown that keeping the mind active, exercising and social interactions may ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Mar 06, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Joslin scientists have discovered a mechanism that regulates the production of brown fat, a type of fat which plays an important role in heat production and energy metabolism. The findings, which appear in the upcoming issue ...
Medical research Mar 13, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Human diseases caused by misfolded proteins known as prions are some of most rare yet terrifying on the planet—incurable with disturbing symptoms that include dementia, personality shifts, hallucinations ...
Medical research Apr 03, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 1 |
The human body has the ability to ward off viruses by activating a naturally occurring protein at the cellular level, setting off a chain reaction that disrupts the levels of cholesterol required in cell membranes to enable ...
Medical research Apr 17, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 2 |
A protein known to be a key player in the development of Parkinson's disease is able to enter and harm cells in the same way that viruses do, according to a Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine study.
Parkinson's & Movement disorders Apr 25, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 0 |
A team including scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has determined and analyzed the high-resolution ...
Medical research Mar 21, 2013 | 4.8 / 5 (5) | 0 |
Researchers have discovered how oxidative stress can turn to the dark side a cellular protein that's usually benign, and make it become a powerful, unwanted accomplice in neuronal death.
Medical research Mar 04, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
Researchers develop universal flu vaccine: New technology could become available to consumers within a decade
(Medical Xpress)—Flu is unpredictable. Influenza viruses are constantly changing—from one season to the next or even within the course of a flu season—making vaccine development difficult.
Medical research Apr 03, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 1 |
Proteins (also known as polypeptides) are organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain. The amino acids in a polymer chain are joined together by the peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids, however in certain organisms the genetic code can include selenocysteine — and in certain archaea — pyrrolysine. Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by post-translational modification, which alter the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability, activity, and ultimately, the function of the proteins. Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable complexes.
Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism. Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. Proteins are also necessary in animals' diets, since animals cannot synthesize all the amino acids they need and must obtain essential amino acids from food. Through the process of digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids that are then used in metabolism.
Proteins were first described and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1838. However, the central role of proteins in living organisms was not fully appreciated until 1926, when James B. Sumner showed that the enzyme urease was a protein. The first protein to be sequenced was insulin, by Frederick Sanger, who won the Nobel Prize for this achievement in 1958. The first protein structures to be solved were hemoglobin and myoglobin, by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew, respectively, in 1958. The three-dimensional structures of both proteins were first determined by x-ray diffraction analysis; Perutz and Kendrew shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for these discoveries. Proteins may be purified from other cellular components using a variety of techniques such as ultracentrifugation, precipitation, electrophoresis, and chromatography; the advent of genetic engineering has made possible a number of methods to facilitate purification. Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry.
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