News tagged with retina
The neural machinery underlying our olfactory sense continues to be an enigma for neuroscience. A recent review in Neuron seeks to expand traditional ideas about how neurons in the olfactory bulb might encode information about ...
Neuroscience May 17, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Team deciphers retina's neural code for brain communication to create novel prosthetic retinal device for blind
(Medical Xpress) -- Two researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have deciphered a mouse's retina's neural code and coupled this information to a novel prosthetic device to restore sight to blind mice. The researchers ...
Medical research Aug 13, 2012 | 5 / 5 (24) | 11 |
(Medical Xpress)—Blind mice can see again, after Oxford University researchers transplanted developing cells into their eyes and found they could re-form the entire light-sensitive layer of the retina.
Ophthalmology Jan 08, 2013 | 5 / 5 (10) | 0 |
After years of research, the first bionic eye has seen the light of day in the United States, giving hope to the blind around the world.
Ophthalmology Feb 05, 2013 | 4.5 / 5 (11) | 0
Australian scientists said Thursday they had successfully implanted a "world first" bionic eye prototype, describing it as a major breakthrough for the visually impaired.
Ophthalmology Aug 30, 2012 | 5 / 5 (9) | 0
(Medical Xpress)—For UCLA bioengineering professor Wentai Liu, more than two decades of visionary research burst into the headlines last month when the FDA approved what it called "the first bionic eye for the blind." ...
Ophthalmology Mar 25, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
The time most of us spend looking at a screen has rapidly increased over the past decade. If we're not at work on the computer, we're likely to stay tuned into the online sphere via a smart phone or tablet. ...
Health Oct 19, 2012 | 4.8 / 5 (4) | 3 |
(Medical Xpress) -- We all know that our pupils contract when our eyes are exposed to increases in the brightness of light. The reason is to both protect the delicate inner workings of our eyes and to help ...
Neuroscience Jan 25, 2012 | 4.8 / 5 (6) | 2 |
An international group of researchers has discovered seven new regions of the human genome—called loci—that are associated with increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness. The ...
Genetics Mar 03, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress) -- Research to restore sight to the clinically blind has reached a critical stage, with testing underway of the prototype microchips that will power the bionic eye.
Ophthalmology Apr 03, 2012 | 4.4 / 5 (9) | 0 |
Researchers led by biomedical engineering Professor Shy Shoham of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology are testing the power of holography to artificially stimulate cells in the eye, with hopes of ...
Medical research Feb 26, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress) -- For the first time, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have made early retina structures containing proliferating neuroretinal progenitor cells using induced pluripotent ...
Ophthalmology Mar 14, 2012 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted market approval to an artificial retina technology today, the first bionic eye to be approved for patients in the United States. The prosthetic technology ...
Ophthalmology Feb 14, 2013 | 5 / 5 (9) | 0 |
Neurobiologists at the Friedrich Miescher Institute have been able to dissect a mechanism in the retina that facilitates our ability to see both in the dark and in the light. They identified a cellular switch ...
Neuroscience Mar 27, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (7) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—With an incredible diversity of cell types, the central nervous system (CNS), comprising the brain, spinal cord and retina, can be considered to be the most complex organ in the body. Professor Bill Harris, ...
Medical research Sep 25, 2012 | not rated yet | 0 |
The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centers of the brain through the fibers of the optic nerve.
In vertebrate embryonic development, the retina and the optic nerve originate as outgrowths of the developing brain, so the retina is considered part of the central nervous system (CNS).. It is the only part of the CNS that can be imaged non-invasively in the living organism.
The retina is a complex, layered structure with several layers of neurons interconnected by synapses. The only neurons that are directly sensitive to light are the photoreceptor cells. These are mainly of two types: the rods and cones. Rods function mainly in dim light and provide black-and-white vision, while cones support daytime vision and the perception of colour. A third, much rarer type of photoreceptor, the photosensitive ganglion cell, is important for reflexive responses to bright daylight.
Neural signals from the rods and cones undergo complex processing by other neurons of the retina. The output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. Several important features of visual perception can be traced to the retinal encoding and processing of light.
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