News tagged with retina

Related topics: cells , brain , eye , neurons , stem cells

Temporal processing in the olfactory system

The neural machinery underlying our olfactory sense continues to be an enigma for neuroscience. A recent review in Neuron seeks to expand traditional ideas about how neurons in the olfactory bulb might encode information about ...

May 17, 2013
popularity 4 / 5 (1) | comments 0 | with audio podcast report

Engineer invents bionic eye to help the blind

(Medical Xpress)—For UCLA bioengineering professor Wentai Liu, more than two decades of visionary research burst into the headlines last month when the FDA approved what it called "the first bionic eye for the blind." ...

Mar 25, 2013
popularity 5 / 5 (4) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

Medical myth: Reading from a screen harms your eyes

The time most of us spend looking at a screen has rapidly increased over the past decade. If we're not at work on the computer, we're likely to stay tuned into the online sphere via a smart phone or tablet. ...

Oct 19, 2012
popularity 4.8 / 5 (4) | comments 3 | with audio podcast

Microchip success for bionic eye

(Medical Xpress) -- Research to restore sight to the clinically blind has reached a critical stage, with testing underway of the prototype microchips that will power the bionic eye.

Apr 03, 2012
popularity 4.4 / 5 (9) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

Retina

The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centers of the brain through the fibers of the optic nerve.

In vertebrate embryonic development, the retina and the optic nerve originate as outgrowths of the developing brain, so the retina is considered part of the central nervous system (CNS).. It is the only part of the CNS that can be imaged non-invasively in the living organism.

The retina is a complex, layered structure with several layers of neurons interconnected by synapses. The only neurons that are directly sensitive to light are the photoreceptor cells. These are mainly of two types: the rods and cones. Rods function mainly in dim light and provide black-and-white vision, while cones support daytime vision and the perception of colour. A third, much rarer type of photoreceptor, the photosensitive ganglion cell, is important for reflexive responses to bright daylight.

Neural signals from the rods and cones undergo complex processing by other neurons of the retina. The output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. Several important features of visual perception can be traced to the retinal encoding and processing of light.

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA