News tagged with rna

Related topics: dna , genes , protein , gene expression , cells

How do neural cells respond to ischemia?

A group of researchers from the Lomonosov Moscow State University, in collaboration with their Irish colleagues from the University College Cork, has studied the early response of cells to ischemia, which ...

May 06, 2015
popularity 20 comments 0

A new cellular response to radiation exposure

Almost the entire human genome is transcribed into RNA, but only a fraction of this is actually used to produce protein. The function of the majority of the RNA, the so-called "non-coding transcriptome" remains an enigma. ...

Apr 30, 2015
popularity 3 comments 0

Recycling histones through transcription

Cells reuse a part of the histones which are used to pack DNA, according to a current study by Karolinska Institutet. The study, which is published in the journal Genome Research, was conducted on yeast cells, but it is ...

Mar 26, 2015
popularity 5 comments 0

Penn vet team points to new colon cancer culprit

Colon cancer is a heavily studied disease—and for good reason. It is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and its numbers are on the rise, from 500,00 deaths in 1990 to 700,000 ...

Mar 16, 2015
popularity 13 comments 0

RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes. RNA is central to the synthesis of proteins. Here, a type of RNA called messenger RNA carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come together to form a molecular machine that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. There are many RNAs with other roles – in particular regulating which genes are expressed, but also as the genomes of most viruses.

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