Cardiology

Protein made during long workouts may warn of heart problem

Doctors diagnose heart attacks by looking for a specific protein the heart releases when damaged. Now, researchers have found higher levels of the same protein among some long-distance walkers – and they were more likely ...

Health

Fast food availability linked with more heart attacks

Areas with a higher number of fast food restaurants have more heartattacks, according to research presented at CSANZ 2019. The study also found that for every additional fast food outlet, there were four additional heart ...

Health

Tiring easily may warn of future heart trouble

Fatigue is universal, a feeling that becomes increasingly familiar as people get older. But when you fatigue too easily, it may not just be related to age but a reflection of your chance of having a stroke or heart attack ...

Cardiology

Damaged hearts rewired with nanotube fibers

Thin, flexible fibers made of carbon nanotubes have now proven able to bridge damaged heart tissues and deliver the electrical signals needed to keep those hearts beating.

Health

The heart-stopping reality of cardiac arrest

One time, Amy Dahart—an intensive care unit nurse at Mary Washington Hospital in Virginia—was part of a cardiac arrest team in a freight elevator, moving a patient from a general ward to the ICU, when the man's heart ...

Alzheimer's disease & dementia

New drug targets early instigator of Alzheimer's disease

Over a hundred years after they were first identified, two ominous signposts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain central topics of research—both formed by sticky accumulations of protein in the brain. Amyloid beta solidifies ...

Neuroscience

Migraine diagnoses positively associated with all-cause dementia

Several studies have recently focused on the association between migraine headaches and other headaches and dementia and found a positive migraine-dementia relationship. However, most of these studies have failed to simultaneously ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Younger stroke survivors more at risk for anxiety

Anxiety is more than twice as common in younger stroke survivors, especially those who show symptoms of depression, than in older patients, according to a new study that recommends routine mental health screenings for survivors ...

Medical research

Deciphering the regenerative potential of newborn mammalian hearts

Unlike lower vertebrates, mammals are unable to repair their adult hearts after injuries that include heart attacks. This inability in humans leads to heart failure—a deadly and costly disease that affects more than 5 million ...

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Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and ensuing oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium).

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck), shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, sweating, and anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom). Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue. Approximately one-quarter of all myocardial infarctions are "silent", that is without chest pain or other symptoms.

Among the diagnostic tests available to detect heart muscle damage are an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac MRI and various blood tests. The most often used blood markers are the creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) fraction and the troponin levels. Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin.

Most cases of STEMI (ST elevation MI) are treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). NSTEMI (non-ST elevation MI) should be managed with medication, although PCI is often performed during hospital admission. In people who have multiple blockages and who are relatively stable, or in a few emergency cases, bypass surgery may be an option, especially in diabetics.

Heart attacks are the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Important risk factors are previous cardiovascular disease, older age, tobacco smoking, high blood levels of certain lipids (triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein) and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, excessive alcohol consumption, the abuse of certain drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine), and chronic high stress levels.

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA