Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Old drug shows new promise to treat leishmaniasis

(Medical Xpress) -- A study published yesterday shows that a drug called fexinidazole could potentially be used to treat visceral leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease that kills 50 000 to 60 000 people a year in Africa, ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

INRS takes aim at dreaded tropical disease leishmaniasis

Leishmania is a microorganism that enters the human body via a sandfly bite. The parasite allows itself to be swallowed up by white blood cells to advance its life cycle. The disease threatens the health of over 500 million ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Discovery of a new potential treatment for visceral leishmaniasis

A new preclinical candidate drug with the potential to treat visceral leishmaniasis, one of the world's major neglected diseases, has been discovered through a close collaboration between the University of Dundee, GSK and ...

Medical research

Predicting treatment outcome for leishmaniasis

For patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, a skin infection transmitted by a sand fly that can in some cases lead to painful and disfiguring ulcers, treatment can be grueling. The first-line therapy offered to many requires ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Skin plays significant role in spread of leishmaniasis

Scientists at the University of York have discovered that parasites responsible for leishmaniasis - a globally occurring neglected tropical disease spread by sand flies - are mainly acquired from the skin rather than a person's ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Unique strains of Brazilian leishmaniasis set apart by genetics

Some of the roughly 1 million cases a year of the parasitic disease leishmaniasis don't fit with the standard definition of the disease—the patients have unusual symptoms and front-line medicines don't work. Now, researchers ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Tuberculosis drug may also target visceral leishmaniasis

A drug that has already been approved for treatment of tuberculosis could also be a powerful tool to combat another of the developing world's major diseases, researchers at the University of Dundee have found.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Reducing delays in identifying visceral leishmaniasis

Women in Indian states with endemic visceral leishmaniasis—also known as Kala Azar—should be encouraged to seek care for persistent fever without delay. Raised awareness about the disease and its symptoms, and the prioritization ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Researchers compare visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic tests

Accurate and timely diagnosis of the tropic disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the pillars for reducing VL deaths. Currently available serological tests for diagnosing VL vary widely in their performance and may, ...

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Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae). Although the majority of the literature mentions only one genus transmitting Leishmania to humans (Lutzomyia) in the Americas, a 2003 study by Galati suggested a new classification for the New World sand flies, elevating several subgenera to the genus level. Elsewhere in the world, the genus Phlebotomus is considered the vector of leishmaniasis.

Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis), but some can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L. donovani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi); the L. mexicana complex with four main species (L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis); L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species (L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, and L. (V.) peruviana). The different species are morphologically indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA sequence analysis, or monoclonal antibodies.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe form in which the parasites have migrated to the vital organs.

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