Oncology & Cancer

Cancer cells send out 'drones' to battle immune system from afar

Cancer cells are more than a lump of cells growing out of control; they participate in active combat with the immune system for their own survival. Being able to evade the immune system is a hallmark of cancer. Cancer cells ...

Oncology & Cancer

Cancer immunotherapy uses melanin against melanoma

Researchers have developed a melanin-enhanced cancer immunotherapy technique that can also serve as a vaccine, based on early experiments done in a mouse model. The technique is applied via a transdermal patch.

Oncology & Cancer

A helping hand for cancer immunotherapy

Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of PRMT5 inhibitors to sensitize unresponsive melanoma to immune checkpoint therapy. PRMT5 inhibitors are currently ...

Oncology & Cancer

Men more genetically prone to skin cancer

As COVID-19 restrictions loosen this summer, Canadians will spend more time outdoors and make the most of the sunshine. A new study from McGill University suggests why men may be more genetically prone to develop skin cancer.

Oncology & Cancer

Blocking tumor signals can hinder cancer's spread

For most people who die of cancer, the spread of the initial tumor is to blame. "Metastasis is what kills most cancer patients," says Serge Fuchs, a professor in Penn's School of Veterinary Medicine. "Yet there are not many, ...

Oncology & Cancer

Circular RNA limits skin cancer spread

A mysterious piece of genetic material restrains the spread of skin cancer cells, but is frequently lost as they mature, a new study finds.

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Melanoma i/ˌmɛləˈnoʊmə/ (from Greek μέλας - melas, "dark") is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells that produce the dark pigment, melanin, which is responsible for the color of skin. They predominantly occur in skin, but are also found in other parts of the body, including the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). Melanoma can occur in any part of the body that contains melanocytes.

Melanoma is less common than other skin cancers. However, it is much more dangerous and causes the majority (75%) of deaths related to skin cancer. Worldwide, doctors diagnose about 160,000 new cases of melanoma yearly. The diagnosis is more frequent in women than in men and is particularly common among Caucasians living in sunny climates, with high rates of incidence in Australia, New Zealand, North America, Latin America, and northern Europe. According to a WHO report, about 48,000 melanoma related deaths occur worldwide per year.

The treatment includes surgical removal of the tumor, adjuvant treatment, chemo- and immunotherapy, or radiation therapy. The chance of a cure is greatest when the tumor is discovered while it is still small and thin, and can be entirely removed surgically.

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