Medications

New therapeutic strategy against diabetes: Vitamin D

Maintaining vitamin D receptor (VDR) levels in pancreatic cells that synthesize and secrete insulin (β cells) could contribute to protecting against the development of diabetes and counteract pancreatic cell damage caused ...

Health

Consistent sleep in early adulthood may cut diabetes risk

(HealthDay)—Maintaining a consistent pattern of seven to eight hours of sleep during early to middle adulthood may lessen the risk for diabetes in women, according to a study published online March 24 in Diabetes Care.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Renal denervation effective in patients with untreated hypertension

Three months after undergoing renal denervation (RDN)—a procedure that delivers energy to overactive nerves leading to the kidney to decrease their activity—patients with untreated high blood pressure had statistically ...

Overweight & Obesity

Causes of childhood obesity worldwide vary, study finds

Childhood obesity is not just a public health concern in western countries; it is rising across the world, particularly in poor and low-income countries. But the factors causing childhood obesity are quite different for wealthier ...

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 – formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes – is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequently having to urinate, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If blood sugars are not lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed. In those on insulin there is typically the requirement to routinely check blood sugar levels.

Rates of diabetes have increased markedly over the last 50 years in parallel with obesity. As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Long-term complications from high blood sugar can include heart attacks, strokes, diabetic retinopathy where eye sight is affected, kidney failure which may require dialysis, and poor circulation of limbs leading to amputations. The acute complication ketoacidosis is uncommon unlike in type 1 diabetes, nonketonic hyperglycemia however may occur.

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