Medical research

Mitochondrial function changes as we age

(Phys.org)—A new study finds that age-related onset of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance may be due to the lowered ability of muscle mitochondria to switch from metabolizing fatty acids to metabolizing glucose ...

Genetics

Study reveals new genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes

An international team of researchers in Mexico and the United States has uncovered a new genetic clue that contributes to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly the elevated risk among Mexican and other ...

Medical research

Gut microbe battles obesity

(Medical Xpress)—Akkermansia muciniphila is one of the many microbes that live in our intestines. This bacterium, which feeds on the intestine's mucus lining, comprises between 3 and 5 percent of the gut microbes of healthy ...

Genetics

Genomic detectives crack the case of the missing heritability

(Medical Xpress)—Despite years of research, the genetic factors behind many human diseases and characteristics remain unknown. The inability to find the complete genetic causes of family traits such as height or the risk ...

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 – formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes – is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequently having to urinate, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If blood sugars are not lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed. In those on insulin there is typically the requirement to routinely check blood sugar levels.

Rates of diabetes have increased markedly over the last 50 years in parallel with obesity. As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Long-term complications from high blood sugar can include heart attacks, strokes, diabetic retinopathy where eye sight is affected, kidney failure which may require dialysis, and poor circulation of limbs leading to amputations. The acute complication ketoacidosis is uncommon unlike in type 1 diabetes, nonketonic hyperglycemia however may occur.

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