Diabetes

A1c test misses many cases of diabetes

Using the hemoglobin A1c blood test to diagnose diabetes tends to underestimate the prevalence of the disease, according to a new study to be presented Saturday, March 23 at ENDO 2019, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Improved PCOS symptoms correlate with gut bacterial composition

Symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) improved with exposure to healthy bacteria in the gut, according to a study in a mouse model of this common women's endocrine disorder. The study results will be presented Monday ...

Diabetes

Patients with diabetes at increased risk for sleep apnea

(HealthDay)—Patients with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), independent of other factors, according to a study published online March 12 in Diabetes Care.

Cardiology

ACC/AHA guidance for preventing heart disease, stroke released

The choices we make every day can have a lasting effect on our heart and vascular health. Adopting a heart healthy eating plan, getting more exercise, avoiding tobacco and managing known risk factors are among the key recommendations ...

Neuroscience

Healthy fats improve nerve function in obese mice

Swapping dietary saturated fats for monounsaturated fats reverses nerve damage and restores nerve function in male mice, finds new preclinical research published in JNeurosci. These data support further investigation of diets ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

TB doesn't only attack the lungs—other organs are also vulnerable

The world marks World Tuberculosis (TB) Day on March 24 every year. Most people assume that TB only affects the lungs – but the disease can also attack other organs. The Conversation Africa's Ina Skosana spoke to Professor ...

Genetics

Can a genetic test predict if you will develop type 2 diabetes?

When I got home after work I was surprised to find my husband and three children sitting by the television and watching the news. They had just learned that the direct to consumer genetic testing company 23andMe was now offering ...

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 – formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes – is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequently having to urinate, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If blood sugars are not lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed. In those on insulin there is typically the requirement to routinely check blood sugar levels.

Rates of diabetes have increased markedly over the last 50 years in parallel with obesity. As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Long-term complications from high blood sugar can include heart attacks, strokes, diabetic retinopathy where eye sight is affected, kidney failure which may require dialysis, and poor circulation of limbs leading to amputations. The acute complication ketoacidosis is uncommon unlike in type 1 diabetes, nonketonic hyperglycemia however may occur.

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