FDA finds no strong link between tomatoes and reduced cancer risk

July 11, 2007

A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review has found only limited evidence for an association between eating tomatoes and a decreased risk of certain cancers, according to an article published online July 10 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Several studies have reported an association between the consumption of tomatoes or lycopene, an antioxidant that gives tomatoes their red hue, and a decreased risk of some cancers, particularly prostate cancer. In order for foods and dietary supplements to be labeled with such health claims, the FDA must review and approve these claims based on the available scientific evidence.

In a review article, Claudine Kavanaugh, Ph.D., of the FDA in College Park, Md., and colleagues describe the agency’s November 2005 evaluation of the scientific evidence linking tomatoes or tomato-based foods, lycopene, and reduced cancer risk.

Their review found no evidence that tomatoes reduced the risk of lung, colorectal, breast, cervical, or endometrial cancer. However, there was very limited evidence for associations between tomato consumption and reduced risk of prostate, ovarian, gastric, and pancreatic cancers. Based on this assessment, the FDA decided to allow qualified health claims for a very limited association between tomatoes and these four cancers. Their analysis found no credible evidence that lycopene, either in food or in a dietary supplement, was associated with reduced risk of any of the cancers evaluated.

For prostate cancer, for example, the FDA issued this statement: “Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests that eating one-half to one cup of tomatoes and/or tomato sauce a week may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. [The] FDA concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim.”

In one of the accompanying editorials, Paul Coates, Ph.D., of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md., discusses some of the issues the FDA had to contend with in conducting their review, such as the limited number of available clinical trials and the challenge of communicating to the public the subtleties of the FDA’s decision.

“Neither of these concerns, however, diminishes the importance of using evidence-based review principles to evaluate important diet-health relationships. In fact, it may be argued that evaluating a diet-health relationship is precisely the circumstance in which systematic review techniques can be most appropriate and effective because they are transparent and objective, and the search and review strategies could be exactly reproduced by others,” Coates writes.

In the second editorial, Edward Giovannucci, M.D., Sc.D., of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston suggests that the widespread use of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) screening may influence the data on the association between tomato and lycopene consumption and prostate cancer risk.

“Given the complexities of studying the relationship between tomato or lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk, both in terms of the exposures and the outcome, one should not be too surprised that no firm conclusion of benefit would be made in the FDA review…Although it may be premature to espouse increased consumption of tomato sauce or lycopene for prostate cancer prevention, this area of research remains promising,” Giovannucci writes.

Source: Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Explore further: Sky-high drug prices for rare diseases show why Orphan Drug Act needs reform

Related Stories

Experts explain how economics can shape precision medicines

March 16, 2017

Many public and private efforts focus on research in precision medicine, the process by which genomic information and other characteristics of a patient's disease are used to predict which treatments will be most effective. ...

Don't relax drug approval process, experts warn

March 8, 2017

The warming follows a speech to Congress last week by President Trump in which he said the US Food and Drug Administration's drug approval process was "too slow and burdensome," and where he promised to "slash the restraints, ...

Recommended for you

Dogs detect breast cancer from bandage: researchers

March 24, 2017

Dogs can sniff out cancer from a piece of cloth which had touched the breast of a woman with a tumour, researchers said Friday, announcing the results of an unusual, but promising, diagnostic trial.

'Jumonji' protein key to Ewing's sarcoma rampage

March 24, 2017

By the time Ewing's Sarcoma is diagnosed, primarily in teens and young adults, it has often spread from its primary site to other parts of the body, making it difficult to treat. A University of Colorado Cancer Center study ...

In a sample of blood, researchers probe for cancer clues

March 24, 2017

One day, patients may be able to monitor their body's response to cancer therapy just by having their blood drawn. A new study, led by bioengineers at UC Berkeley, has taken an important step in that direction by measuring ...

Researchers gain insight into breast cancer drug resistance

March 24, 2017

Breast cancer's ability to develop resistance to treatment has frustrated researchers and physicians and has thwarted even the latest and greatest targeted therapies. For example, after researchers identified a disease pathway ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.