Researchers identify unforeseen regulation of the anti-bacterial immune response

August 28, 2012
The Trudeau Institute is a nonprofit biomedical research center located in Saranac Lake, New York. Credit: Trudeau Institute

New research from the laboratory of Dr. Andrea Cooper at the Trudeau Institute, just published in the European Journal of Immunology, holds promise for the improved prevention and treatment of bacterial infections and the life-threatening complications of chronic inflammation that can result from them. The publication title is "Nitric oxide inhibits the accumulation of CD4+CD44hiTbet+CD69lo T cells in mycobacterial infection".

Following a typical bacterial infection, the immune response is manifested by the accumulation of within the affected organs. In a bacterial skin infection, for example, this accumulation results in swelling and redness. When infection occurs in , a similar type of response takes place, but in this setting the immune response can actually damage the organs, resulting in their diminished function. Because of this risk, whenever the immune response acts to control bacteria, the response itself must also be regulated to prevent patient injury.

The publication defines the role of a specific component of the immune response in controlling the extent of the immune response. The authors show that cells that promote damaging inflammation are specifically regulated by the activated immune cells that are part of the inflammatory process. In this way, the immune response undergoes a that regulates tissue damage but can also limit the expression of bacterial control.

Once bacteria enter the body, the disease process can occur in one of two ways: either the bacteria manipulates the immune regulatory pathways, limiting expression of an immune response (leading to too many bacteria and resulting in tissue damage), or the immune response is not well regulated, and the subsequent inflammatory response damages organs. Maintaining the balance between the killing of bacteria and regulation of the immune response is critical to the health of the patient. The better our understanding of how this balance is generated, the more easily the immune response can be manipulated to achieve an optimal outcome every time it is induced.

Explore further: Researchers announce a discovery in how FluMist elicits protection

Related Stories

Researchers announce a discovery in how FluMist elicits protection

August 23, 2011
New research from the Trudeau Institute may help to explain why live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), commonly known as FluMist, elicits protection. The research is published in this month's issue of Vaccine. The journal ...

Innate immune system protein provides a new target in war against bacterial infections

July 2, 2012
Research led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists has identified a possible new approach to defeating bacterial infections by targeting an innate immune system component in a bid to invigorate the immune response.

Gatekeeper signal controls skin inflammation

January 26, 2012
A new study unravels key signals that regulate protective and sometimes pathological inflammation of the skin. The research, published online on January 26th in the journal Immunity by Cell Press, identifies a "gatekeeper" ...

Recommended for you

How cytoplasmic DNA triggers inflammation in human cells

October 17, 2017
A team led by LMU's Veit Hornung has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in ...

Early trials show potential for treating hay fever with grass protein fragments

October 13, 2017
Protein fragments taken from grass can help protect hay fever patients from allergic reactions to pollen grains.

Researchers find mechanism for precise targeting of the immune response

October 13, 2017
The immune system checks the health of cells by examining a kind of molecular passport. Sometimes, cells present the wrong passport, which can lead to autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammations or cancer. Scientists of the ...

Enzyme behind immune cell response revealed

October 12, 2017
Monash University researchers have revealed the role played by an enzyme that is pivotal to the process of clearing infection in the body. Moreover, they suggest that the enzyme may be a potential target for drug development ...

Calcium lets T cells use sugar to multiply and fight infection

October 11, 2017
A calcium signal controls whether immune cells can use the nutrients needed to fuel their multiplication into a cellular army designed to fight invading viruses.

New genetic clue to peanut allergy

October 11, 2017
Canadian researchers have pinpointed a new gene associated with peanut allergy, offering further evidence that genes play a role in the development of food allergies and opening the door to future research, improved diagnostics ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.