Norovirus vaccine reduces symptoms of illness by more than half, early research shows

October 4, 2013, Infectious Diseases Society of America

An investigational vaccine appears generally well tolerated and effective against the most common strain of norovirus, reducing the main symptoms of the gastrointestinal (GI) infection, vomiting and/or diarrhea, by 52 percent, suggests research being presented at IDWeek 2013.

Currently, there is no treatment or cure for norovirus, the most common cause of severe GI infection in the United States. Norovirus is highly contagious. Significant outbreaks occur in health care facilities, childcare centers and other places where people are in close quarters, including in the military and on cruise ships. Each year, 19 to 21 million Americans – one in 15 – are infected and as many as 800 die, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In addition, one recent evaluation reports that the overall cost of the disease in the United States is $5.5 billion annually.

"Norovirus truly is a global issue and most if not everyone has experienced it to some degree," said David I. Bernstein, MD, MA, professor of pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati and lead author of the study. "The results of our study are promising and our next step is to test this vaccine in a real-world setting."

The randomized, multi-center study included 98 people who agreed to drink water containing a significant dose of the virus, 50 who received the injected vaccine and 48 who received a placebo injection that did not contain the vaccine. Neither the participants nor the researchers knew in advance who received the vaccine and who did not. In the vaccine group, 26 (52 percent) were infected, as were 29 (60 percent) of those in the non-vaccine group. In people who received the vaccine, 10 (20 percent) suffered from mild, moderate or severe vomiting and/or diarrhea versus 20 (42 percent) in the non-vaccine group, a 52 percent reduction in symptoms.

The vaccine targets two genotypes of norovirus: GI.1 and GII.4, the latter of which is now the leading cause of outbreaks in the United States.

Norovirus can spread from person to person through infected food or water or contaminated surfaces. The best prevention is proper hand washing, but the virus is so contagious that people can become ill even from contact with viral particles in the air. Not everyone who is exposed to norovirus becomes infected and of those who are infected, not everyone gets sick, said Dr. Bernstein. But it nonetheless is very common, and can be serious, particularly for children and older adults.

"If the vaccine continues to prove as effective as our initial results indicate, it could be used for specific populations or situations – in those at a higher risk of severe disease such as the elderly or at high risk for infection or transmission such as in day care, people going on a cruise, those in or in the military," said Dr. Bernstein. "Or it could be offered to everyone, since all of us are exposed at one time or another."

AT A GLANCE

  • An investigational vaccine reduces symptoms of norovirus gastrointestinal (GI) infection by 52 percent, an early study shows.
  • Norovirus is the most common cause of GI illness, sickening one in 15 Americans every year, and killing as many as 800.
  • In the randomized multicenter study, people drank water infected with the virus. Those who had been vaccinated experienced a 52 percent reduction in vomiting and/or diarrhea versus those who did not receive the vaccine.
  • If further testing proves the effective, it might be offered to the general population, or people most likely to be exposed to , such as those in the military, who are going on cruises, or who live in nursing homes.

Explore further: Monoclonal antibody effective against norovirus

Related Stories

Monoclonal antibody effective against norovirus

July 24, 2013
Researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) provide the first proof of concept data showing that a monoclonal antibody can neutralize human norovirus. This research, which could one ...

'Cruise ship virus' also sickens one million US kids yearly

March 20, 2013
(HealthDay)—Norovirus, the infamous stomach bug that's sickened countless cruise ship passengers, also wreaks havoc on land.

Vaccine against epidemic gastroenteritis being tested

December 9, 2011
(Medical Xpress) -- A new vaccine is being tested in the US that may protect against the norovirus, which causes "stomach flu" or acute viral gastroenteritis, that can occur in confined living settings such as cruise ships, ...

Study lays groundwork for norovirus anti-viral treatments

July 22, 2013
An animal model of the human norovirus created at the University of Michigan Health System lays the groundwork for understanding the biology of the pesky virus and developing antiviral drug treatment.

Research shows copper destroys norovirus

May 28, 2013
New research from the University of Southampton shows that copper and copper alloys will rapidly destroy norovirus - the highly-infectious sickness bug. The virus can be contracted from contaminated food or water, person-to-person ...

CDC researchers spot increase in new 'stomach bug' strain (Update)

January 24, 2013
(HealthDay)—A new norovirus strain caused most of the outbreaks of the contagious intestinal illness in the United States between September and December last year, but it is not known if this strain will lead to an overall ...

Recommended for you

Flu may be spread just by breathing, new study shows; coughing and sneezing not required

January 18, 2018
It is easier to spread the influenza virus (flu) than previously thought, according to a new University of Maryland-led study released today. People commonly believe that they can catch the flu by exposure to droplets from ...

Zika virus damages placenta, which may explain malformed babies

January 18, 2018
Though the Zika virus is widely known for a recent outbreak that caused children to be born with microencephaly, or having a small head, and other malformations, scientists have struggled to explain how the virus affects ...

Study reveals how MRSA infection compromises lymphatic function

January 17, 2018
Infections of the skin or other soft tissues with the hard-to-treat MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria appear to permanently compromise the lymphatic system, which is crucial to immune system function. ...

New study validates clotting risk factors in chronic kidney disease

January 17, 2018
In late 2017, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) discovered and published (Science Translational Medicine, (9) 417, Nov 2017) a potential treatment target to prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD) ...

Fresh approach to tuberculosis vaccine offers better protection

January 17, 2018
A unique platform that resulted in a promising HIV vaccine has also led to a new, highly effective vaccine against tuberculosis that is moving toward testing in humans.

Newly-discovered TB blood signal provides early warning for at-risk patients

January 17, 2018
Tuberculosis can be detected in people with HIV infection via a unique blood signal before symptoms appear, according to a new study by researchers from the Crick, Imperial College London and the University of Cape Town.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.