Timing is key for traumatic brain injury treatment

October 14, 2014 by David Ellis

Researchers at the University of Adelaide have discovered two potential treatments for traumatic brain injury that are most effective when given at different stages after the injury has occurred.

Laboratory studies conducted in the University's School of Medical Sciences have confirmed that changes in water channels over time play a critical role in traumatic .

For his PhD at the University, researcher Dr Joshua Burton tested two compounds that alter the natural flow of water activity in and out of the brain. He found that recovery from brain injury can be greatly assisted when these compounds are given at the right times.

Dr Burton's work could point to the potential development of new drugs as well as new approaches to preventing brain damage and death. The research also has implications for treatment of after stroke.

"One of the serious consequences of is an increase in brain moisture content and associated brain swelling, which significantly impacts patients' neurological outcomes. This swelling can occur for days after the initial injury and is frequently life-threatening," Dr Burton says.

"The water channels normally function to protect the brain, but in the case of or stroke they become a pathway of vulnerability that allows swelling. Unfortunately, the swelling creates pressure within the skull – there's nowhere for the brain to expand to – decreasing oxygen levels and blood to the brain."

Dr Burton has found that applying a drug that closes the water channels can inhibit initial water entry, helping to close the window of vulnerability. A second drug used later in the progression of the injury acts to enhance the water channel activity, letting superfluous moisture out when needed. "By using both of these compounds – a blocker at the early stage of injury, and an activator at the later stage – we're able to complement the brain's natural healing processes and maintain a reduced level of swelling," he says.

This work builds on more than a decade of research conducted by the University of Adelaide's Professor Andrea Yool on the water channel proteins known as "aquaporins".

"Dr Burton's work is groundbreaking because it clarifies the roles of aquaporins in the brain during the short and long-term responses to traumatic head injury. This work also demonstrates for the first time that recently discovered drug-like compounds can be used in series to initially reduce water entry and then enhance water exit over time," Professor Yool says.

"Most current therapeutic approaches are limited in their ability to reduce injury-induced brain swelling, and no treatments are available to resolve excess fluid at a later stage. While much more research is needed, there is exciting potential here for new interventions in clinical situations. New approaches that can improve the outlook for patients, especially in the later stages of injury development, would be of great benefit," she says.

Explore further: Stroke-fighting drug offers potential treatment for traumatic brain injury

Related Stories

Even mild traumatic brain injury may cause brain damage

July 16, 2014

Even mild traumatic brain injury may cause brain damage and thinking and memory problems, according to a study published in the July 16, 2014, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Recommended for you

The neural relationship between light and sleep

June 23, 2017

Humans are diurnal animals, meaning that we usually sleep at night and are awake during the day, due at least in part to light or the lack thereof. Light is known to affect sleep indirectly by entraining—modifying the length ...

How pheromones trigger female sexual behavior

June 22, 2017

A study by a group of Japanese scientists showed how a male pheromone in mice enhances sexual behaviors in females—and how it may enhance a different behavior, aggression, in males—by identifying distinct neural circuits ...

Coupling of movement and vision

June 22, 2017

In a study published in Cell, Georg Keller and his group shed light on neural circuits in the cortex that underlie the integration of movement and visual feedback. They identified a mechanism in the visual cortex responsible ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.