Inflammation in regeneration: A friend or foe?

March 7, 2017
Expression of Il1b (green) and apoptosis of regenerative cells (red) are detected in larval tail of the mutant which lacks macrophage. Il1b expression is visualized by using the transgenic zebrafish. Credit: Tokyo Institute of techonology

Regeneration is an inherent property of life. However, the potential to regenerate differs across species: while fish and amphibians can re-grow appendages such as limbs, tails, and fins, mammals, including humans, cannot restore injured organs to their original shape and function. Therefore, elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the amazing regenerative capacity of lower vertebrates can show approaches to restore complex organs in humans, which is a clinical goal of the future.

An international team of scientists led by Associate Professor Atsushi Kawakami from Tokyo Institute of Technology have disclosed a mechanism regulating regeneration of the caudal fin in zebrafish. To identify key molecules responsible for , they compared gene transcription in the larvae of the wild-type and mutant zebrafish deficient in fin regeneration. They found that some inflammatory mediators, especially cytokine interleukin 1 beta (Il1b), were upregulated in the mutant and remained there for a long time after amputation of the larval tail. The mutant zebrafish also lacked myeloid cells such as macrophages, necessary to prevent programmed cell death (apoptosis) of the regenerative cells. The scientists therefore suspected a link among the increase in Il1b, absence of macrophages, and death of regenerative cells.

Il1b is considered to be mostly produced by . Surprisingly, after fin amputation, Il1b was primarily observed in surrounding the site of injury where it caused inflammation and apoptosis of the regenerative cells and inhibited the extension of the fin fold. However, if macrophages come to action, they could suppress Il1b expression, attenuate inflammation, and promote survival of the regenerative cells in the fin, thus behaving as critical regulators of inflammation during tissue repair.

After tissue injury (A), epithelial cells secrete Il1b which activates regeneration-induced genes and promotes proliferation of surrounding cells (B). Macrophages attenuate Il1b expression, preventing chronic inflammation (C); otherwise, regenerative cells die by apoptosis induced by Il1b excess (D). Credit: Tokyo Institute of Technology

All these data point to the negative effect of Il1b on the regenerative processes taking place after fin amputation. Yet, it is not that simple. By creating an Il1b-deficient zebrafish, the researchers found that transient, contrary to prolonged, presence of Il1b activated the expression of regeneration-induced genes and was essential for cell proliferation at the amputation site and regeneration of the injured fin.

Thus, the study of Dr. Kawakami and his colleagues revealed an unexpected association between regeneration and inflammation which acts as a double-edge sword: while is necessary to initiate tissue repair, chronic blocks further regeneration (Figure 2). As Il1b is evolutionary conserved in vertebrates, it remains to be determined whether similar mechanisms can function in mammals, including humans, as well as to identify anti-inflammatory factors released by macrophages.

Explore further: To grow or not to grow: A step forward in adult vertebrate tissue regeneration

More information: Tomoya Hasegawa et al, Transient inflammatory response mediated by interleukin-1β is required for proper regeneration in zebrafish fin fold, eLife (2017). DOI: 10.7554/eLife.22716

Related Stories

Scientist identify first steps in muscle regeneration

May 20, 2016

Scientists from Monash University's Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute ARMI have found the first real evidence of how muscles may be triggered to regenerate or heal when damaged. The research could open the way to ...

Study uncovers genetic elements that drive regeneration

April 6, 2016

If you trace our evolutionary tree way back to its roots—long before the shedding of gills or the development of opposable thumbs—you will likely find a common ancestor with the amazing ability to regenerate lost body ...

Recommended for you

Survivors of childhood brain tumors have increased body fat

March 24, 2017

McMaster University researchers have discovered that while survivors of childhood brain tumours have a similar Body Mass Index (BMI) to healthy children with no cancer, they have more fat tissue overall, and especially around ...

Scientists unveil a giant leap for anti-aging

March 23, 2017

UNSW researchers have made a discovery that could lead to a revolutionary drug that actually reverses ageing, improves DNA repair and could even help NASA get its astronauts to Mars.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.