Excessive smartphone use leads to problems, and females are especially susceptible to addiction, according to new research from Binghamton University- State University of New York.
"Our smartphones have turned into a tool that provides short, quick, immediate satisfaction, which is very triggering," said Isaac Vaghefi, assistant professor of management information systems at Binghamton University-State University of New York. "Our neurons get fired and dopamine is being released, and over time this makes us acquire a desire for quick feedback and immediate satisfaction. This process also has contributed to developing shorter attention spans and being more and more prone to boredom."
Vaghefi and his colleagues recently surveyed 182 college students and asked them to report their daily routine of smartphone usage. Based on the analysis of the responses, they classified the user as one of the following types: Thoughtful, Regular, Highly Engaged, Fanatic and Addict. Seven percent identified as "addicts" and 12 percent identified as "fanatics." Both groups experience personal, social and workplace problems due to a compulsive need to be on their smartphones. Overall, these users exhibited signs that could indicate depression, social isolation, social anxiety, shyness, impulsivity and low self-esteem. Females were most likely to exhibit susceptibility to addiction.
"Technology addiction" is not an official mental disorder in DSM-V, but the umbrella term refers to addictive behavior related to social media, excessive texting, information overload, online shopping, gambling, video gaming, online pornography and overall smartphone usage.
"While self-identified "addict" users were in the minority, I predict technology addiction will increase as technology continues to advance and application, game and gadget developers find new ways to ensure users' long term engagement with technology," said Vaghefi.
Vaghefi said that if you recognize any of these signs, you may want to consult professional help:
- You use technology as a way of escaping problems or relieving feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety or depression.
- You ignore what's happening in real time in favor of what's happening virtually.
- You constantly check your smartphone, even when it doesn't ring or vibrate.
- You get paranoid when you do not have your smartphone with you.
The paper, "A typology of user liability to IT addiction," was published in Information Systems Journal.
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Isaac Vaghefi et al, A typology of user liability to IT addiction, Information Systems Journal (2017). DOI: 10.1111/isj.12098